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Military Emissions, Armed Conflicts, Border Changes and the Kyoto Protocol


The impacts of military activities in peacetime, military action and territorial changes on greenhouse gas emission commitments of nations under the Kyoto Protocol are analysed. We propose rules and institutional responsibilities to deal with the repercussions of such changes on markets in emission permits and national commitments aiming at prevention of serious distortions.

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Michaelowa, A., Koch, T. Military Emissions, Armed Conflicts, Border Changes and the Kyoto Protocol. Climatic Change 50, 383–394 (2001).

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  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Military Action
  • Emission Permit
  • Institutional Responsibility
  • National Commitment