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Evaluating efficiency in the Norwegian bus industry using data envelopment analysis


This paper focuses on the performance of Norwegian bus companies subsidized by the government. The performance is evaluated from a productive efficiency point of view. The framework is that of a deterministic non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to efficiency measurement. In this context several important issues are addressed: efficiency rankings, distribution and scale properties in the bus industry, potentials for efficiency improvements in the sector, the impact of ownership, area of operation and scope, and ways of improving efficiency in the sector. The findings show that the average bus company exhibits increasing return to scale in production of its services. The extent of such returns however vary, with size and is more prevalent among smaller companies. The average bus company is found to have a considerable input saving potential of about 28 percent. Neither economies of scope nor company ownership are found to have an influence on company performance. It is suggested that geographical factors need a closer attention in future research. The implications of DEA results are discussed and concluding remarks offered.

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Correspondence to James Odeck.

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Odeck, J., Alkadi, A. Evaluating efficiency in the Norwegian bus industry using data envelopment analysis. Transportation 28, 211–232 (2001).

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  • data development analysis
  • efficiency measurement
  • performance of bus companies
  • scales