Biological Invasions

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 21–32 | Cite as

Positive Interactions of Nonindigenous Species: Invasional Meltdown?

  • Daniel Simberloff
  • Betsy Von Holle

Abstract

Study of interactions between pairs or larger groups of nonindigenous species has been subordinated in the literature to study of interactions between nonindigenous and native species. To the extent that interactions among introduced species are depicted at all, the emphasis has been on negative interactions, primarily resource competition and interference. However, a literature search reveals that introduced species frequently interact with one another and that facilitative interactions are at least as common as detrimental ones. The population significance of these interactions has rarely been determined, but a great variety of types of direct and indirect interactions among individuals of different nonindigenous species is observed, and many are plausibly believed to have consequences at the population level. In particular, mutualisms between plants and the animals that disperse and/or pollinate them and modification of habitat by both animals and plants seem common and often important in facilitating invasions. There is little evidence that interference among introduced species at levels currently observed significantly impedes further invasions, and synergistic interactions among invaders may well lead to accelerated impacts on native ecosystems – an invasional ‘meltdown’ process.

biotic resistance dispersal agent facilitation habitat modification indirect effects mutualism pollination synergism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous (1991) Plant invasions. The incidence of environmental weeds in Australia. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  2. Aplet GH (1990) Alternation of earthworm community biomass by the alien Myrica faya in Hawaii. Oecologia 82: 411–416Google Scholar
  3. Bach CE (1991) Direct and indirect interactions between ants, scales, and plants. Oecologia 82: 233–239Google Scholar
  4. Barthell JF, Randall JM, Thorp RW and Wenner AM (1994) Invader assisted invasion: pollination of yellow star-thistle by feral honey bees in island and mainland ecosystems (Abstract). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 75: 10Google Scholar
  5. Boucher D (1985) The idea of mutualism, past and future. In: Boucher D (ed) The Biology of Mutualism, pp 1–28. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Boucher D, James S and Keeler KH (1982) The ecology of mutualism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13: 315–347Google Scholar
  7. Butz Huryn VM (1997) Ecological impacts of introduced honey bees. Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 275–297Google Scholar
  8. Carleton AR and Owre OT (1975) The red-whiskered bulbul in Florida: 1960–71. Auk 92: 40–57Google Scholar
  9. Chapman RN (1931) Animal Ecology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheke AS (1987) An ecological history of the Mascarene islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates. In: Diamond AW (ed) Mascarene Island Birds, pp 5–89. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Crosby AW (1986) Ecological Imperialism. The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Cross JR (1981) The establishment of Rhododendron ponticum in the Killarney Oakwoods, S.W. Ireland. Journal of Ecology 69: 807–824Google Scholar
  13. D'Antonio CM and Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63–87Google Scholar
  14. DeAngelis DL, Post WM and Travis CC (1980) Postive Feedback in Natural Systems. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  15. Dermott R and Kerec D (1997) Changes to the deepwater benthos of eastern Lake Erie since the invasion of Dreissena: 1979–1993. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 922–930Google Scholar
  16. Dow RL and Terceira C (1985) Indian laurel survey. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Bermuda, Monthly Bulletin 56: 53Google Scholar
  17. Elton CS (1958) The Ecology of Invasions by Plants and Animals. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Fox MD and Fox BJ (1986) The susceptibility of natural communities to invasion. In: Groves RH and Burdon JJ (eds) Ecology of Biological Invasion, pp 57–66. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. French JRPI (1993) How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America? Fisheries 18: 13–19Google Scholar
  20. Gerrish G and Mueller-Dombois D (1980) Behavior of native and non-native plants in two tropical rainforests on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Phytocoenologia 8: 237–295Google Scholar
  21. Ghedotti MJ, Smihula JC and Smith GR (1995) Zebra mussel predation by round gobies in the laboratory. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21: 665–669Google Scholar
  22. Griffin GF, Stafford Smith DM, Morton SR, Allan GE and Masters KA (1989) Status and implications of the invasion of tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla) on the Finke River, Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 29: 297–315Google Scholar
  23. Griffiths RW (1993) Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the benthic fauna of Lake St. Clair. In: Nalepa TF and Schloesser DW (eds) Zebra Mussels. Biology, Impacts, and Control, pp 415–437. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  24. Harper JL, Williams JT and Sagar GR (1965) The behaviour of seeds in soil. I. The heterogeneity of soil surfaces and its role in determining the establishment of plants from seed. Journal of Ecology 53: 273–286Google Scholar
  25. Hilburn DJ (1987) Indian laurel (Ficus microcarpus L.). A problem tree in Bermuda. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  26. Hokkanen H and Pimentel D (1984) New approach for selecting biological control agents. Canadian Entomologist 116: 1109–1121Google Scholar
  27. Hokkanen H and Pimentel D (1989) New associations in biological control: theory and practice. Canadian Entomologist 121: 829–840Google Scholar
  28. Howarth FG (1985) Impacts of alien land arthropods and molluscs on native plants and animals in Hawaii. In: Stone CP and Scott JM (eds) Hawai'i's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management, pp 149–179. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  29. Hughes R, Vitousek PM and Tunison T (1991) Alien grass invasion and fire in the seasonal submontane zone of Hawai'i. Ecology 72: 743–746Google Scholar
  30. Hurd PD and Linsley EG (1964) The squash and gourd bees — genera Peponapsis Robertson and Xenoglossa Smith — inhabiting America north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Hilgardia 35: 375–477Google Scholar
  31. Hurd PD Jr and Linsley EG (1966) The Mexican squash and gourd bees of the genus Peponapis (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 59: 835–851Google Scholar
  32. Hurd PD Jr and Linsley EG (1967a) South American squash and gourd bees of the genus Peponapis (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 647–661Google Scholar
  33. Hurd PD Jr and Linsley EG (1967b) Squash and gourd bees of the genus Xenoglossa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 988–1007Google Scholar
  34. Hurd PD Jr, Linsley EG and Whitaker TW (1971) Squash and gourd bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the origin of the cultivated Cucurbita. Evolution 25: 218–234Google Scholar
  35. Johnson LE, and Carlton JT (1996) Post-establishment spread in large-scale invasions: dispersal mechanisms of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Ecology 77: 1686–1690Google Scholar
  36. Kareiva PM and Bertness MD (1997) Special feature. Reexamining the role of positive interactions in communities. Ecology 78: 1945Google Scholar
  37. Kauffman S, McKey DB, Hossaert-McKey M and Horvitz CC (1991) Adaptations for a two-phase seed dispersal system involving vertebrates and ants in a hemiepiphytic fig (Ficus microcarpa: Moraceae). American Journal of Botany 78: 971–977Google Scholar
  38. Kloot PM (1983) The role of common iceplant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) in the deterioration of medic pastures. Australian Journal of Ecology 8: 301–306Google Scholar
  39. Knight RS (1986) A comparative analysis of fleshy fruit displays in alien and indigenous plants. In: MacDonald IAW, Kruger FJ and Ferrar AA (eds) The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa, pp 171–177. Oxford University Press, CapetownGoogle Scholar
  40. Leppäkoski E (1984) Introduced species in the Baltic Sea and its coastal ecosystems. Ophelia Suppl. 3: 123–135Google Scholar
  41. Lewandowski K (1982) The role of early developmental stages, in the dynamics of Dreissena polymorpha (Pall.) (Bivalvia) populations in lakes. II. Settling of larvae and the dynamics of numbers of settled individuals. Ekologia Polska 30: 223–286Google Scholar
  42. Lonsdale WM (1993) Rates of spread of an invading species — Mimosa pigra in northern Australia. Journal of Ecology 81: 513–521Google Scholar
  43. Lonsdale WM and Braithewaite RN (1988) The shrub that conquered the bush. New Scientist 15: 52–55Google Scholar
  44. Loope LL and Scowcroft PG (1985) Vegetation response within exclosures in Hawaii: A review. In: Stone CP and Scott JM (eds) Hawai'i's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management, pp 377–400. University of Hawaii, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  45. Lowe RL and Pillsbury RW (1995) Shifts in benthic algal community structure and function following the appearance of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 21: 558–566Google Scholar
  46. Lynch M, Conery J and Burger R (1995) Mutation accumulation and the extinction of small populations. American Naturalist 146: 489–518Google Scholar
  47. MacArthur RH and Wilson EO (1963) An equilbrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373–387Google Scholar
  48. MacArthur RH and Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  49. Macdonald IA, Thebaud C, Strahm WA and Strasberg D (1991) Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Réunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18: 51–61Google Scholar
  50. MacIsaac HJ (1996) Potential abiotic and biotic impacts of zebra mussels on the inland waters of North America. American Zoologist 36: 287–299Google Scholar
  51. Mack RN (1981) Invasion of Bromus tectorum L. into Western North America: an ecological chronicle. Agro Ecosystems 7: 145–165Google Scholar
  52. Mack RN (1986) Alien plant invasion to the Intermountain West: a case history. In: Mooney HA and Drake JA (eds) Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii, pp 191–210. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Mack RN (1989) Temperate grasslands vulnerable to plant invasions: characteristics and consequences. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmánek M and Williamson M (eds) Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, pp 155–179. John Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  54. Mack RN and Thompson JN (1982) Evolution in steppe with few, large, hooved mammals. American Naturalist 119: 757–773Google Scholar
  55. Mal TK, Lovett-Doust J, Lovett-Doust L and Mulligan GA (1992) The biology of Canadian weeds. 100. Lythrum salicaria. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences 72: 1305–1330Google Scholar
  56. McKey DB and Kaufmann SC (1991) Naturalization of exotic Ficus species (Moraceae) in south Florida. In: Center TD, Doren RF, Hofstetter RL, Myers RL and Whiteaker LD (eds) Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants. Technical Report NPS/NREVER/NRTR-91/06, pp 221–236. United States Department of the Interior/National Park Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  57. Melgoza G, Nowak RS and Tausch RJ (1990) Soil water exploitation after fire: competition between Bromus tectorum (cheat-grass) and two native species. Oecologia 83: 7–13Google Scholar
  58. Menge BA (1995) Indirect effects in marine rocky intertidal interaction webs: patterns and importance. Ecological Monographs 65: 21–74Google Scholar
  59. Monkman KD (1984) Rapid spread of the Indian laurel. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Bermuda, Monthly Bulletin 55: 84–85Google Scholar
  60. Moulton MP and Pimm SL (1983) The introduced Hawaiian avifauna: biogeographic evidence for competition. American Naturalist 121: 669–690Google Scholar
  61. Parker IM, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Goodell K, Wonham M, Kareiva PM, Williamson MH, Von Holle B, Moyle PB, Byers JE and Goldwasser L (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biological Invasions 1: 3–19 (this issue)Google Scholar
  62. Philbrick RN (1972) The plants of Santa Barbara Island. Madrono 21: 329–393Google Scholar
  63. Ramakrishnan PS and Vitousek PM (1989) Ecosystem-level processes and the consequences of biological invasions. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmánek M and Williamson M (eds) Biological Invasions. A Global Perspective, pp 281–300. John Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  64. Ramirez BW and Montero SJ (in press) Ficus microcarpa L. and F. benjamina L. and other species introduced in the New World, their pollinators (Agaonidae) and other fig wasps. Rev. Biol. Tropical.Google Scholar
  65. Reeders HH, Bij de Vaate A and Nordhuis R (1993) Potential of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) for water quality management. In: Nalepa TF and Schloesser DW (eds) Zebra Mussels. Biology, Impacts, and Control, pp 439–451. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  66. Ricciardi A, Whoriskey FG and Rasmussen JB (1997) The role of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in structuring macroinvertebrate communities on hard substrata. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2596–2608Google Scholar
  67. Ricciardi A, Neves RJ and Rasmussen JB (1998) Impending extinctions of North American freshwater mussels (Unionoida) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 613–619Google Scholar
  68. Risch S and Boucher D (1976) What ecologists look for. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 52: 8–9Google Scholar
  69. Simberloff D (1974) Equilibrium theory of island biogeography and ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 161–182Google Scholar
  70. Simberloff D (1981) Community effects of introduced species. In: Nitecki MH (ed) Biotic Crises in Ecological and Evolutionary Time, pp 53–81. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Simberloff D (1986) Introduced insects: A biogeographic and systematic perspective. In: Mooney HA and Drake JA (eds) Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii, pp 3–26. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Simberloff D and Boecklen W (1988) Why some birds introduced to the Hawaiian islands fail to colonize. In: van den Elzen R, Shuchmann K-L and Schmidt-Koenig K (eds) Current Topics in Avian Biology, pp 69–72. Deutschen Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, BonnGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith CW (1991) The alien plant problem in Hawaii. In: Center TD, Doren RF, Hofstetter RL, Myers RL and Whiteaker LD (eds) Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants, pp 327–338. US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart TW and Haynes JM (1994) Benthic macroinvertebrate communities of southwestern Lake Ontario following invasion of Dreissena. Journal of Great Lakes Research 20: 479–493Google Scholar
  75. Stiling PD (1996) Ecology. Theories and Applications. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  76. Stone CP (1985) Alien animals in Hawai'i's native ecosystems: toward controlling the adverse effects of introduced vertebrates. In: Stone CP and Scott JM (eds) Hawai'i's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management, pp 251–297. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  77. Stone CP and Taylor DD (1984) Status of feral pig management and research in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Proceedings of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Natural Science Conference 5: 106–117Google Scholar
  78. Tallamy DW (1983) Equilibrium biogeography and its application to insect host-parasite systems. American Naturalist 121: 244–254Google Scholar
  79. US Congress, O.T.A. (1993) Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  80. Udvardy MDF (1969) Dynamic Zoogeography. Van Nostrand and Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Vaughan RE and Wiehé PO (1939) Note on ‘The Plant Communities of Mauritius’. Journal of Ecology 27: 281Google Scholar
  82. Vitousek PM (1986) Biological invasions and ecosystem properties: can species make a difference? In: Mooney HA and Drake JA (eds) Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii, pp 163–176. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Vitousek PM and Walker LR (1989) Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i: plant demography, nitrogen fixation, ecosystem effects. Ecological Monographs 59: 247–265Google Scholar
  84. Vivrette NJ and Muller CH (1977) Mechanism of invasion and dominance of coastal grassland by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Ecological Monographs 47: 301–318Google Scholar
  85. Waser NM, Chiitka L, Price MV, Williams NM and Ollerton J (1996) Generalization in pollination systems and why it matters. Ecology 77: 1043–1060Google Scholar
  86. Westman WE (1986) Resilience: concepts and measures. In: Dell B, Hopkins AJM and Lamont BB (eds) Resilience in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  87. Wiehé PO (1946) L'herbe condé et la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes. Revue Agriculturale Ile Maurice 25: 51–61Google Scholar
  88. Williamson M (1986) Biological Invasions. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Williamson M (1989) The MacArthur and Wilson theory today: true but trivial. Journal of Biogeography 16: 3–4Google Scholar
  90. Woodward SA, Vitousek PM, Matson K, Hughes F, Benvenuto K and Matson PA (1990) Use of the exotic tree Myrica faya by native and exotic birds in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Pacific Science 44: 88–93Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Simberloff
    • 1
  • Betsy Von Holle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA (e-mail

Personalised recommendations