The smooth shelled blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk (Bivalvia: Mollusca) arrived in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawai'i on 22 June 1998 as a member of the fouling community of the USS Missouri, and mussel spawning activity was observed within 2 h of the vessel's arrival. Small mussels (<10 mm shell length, approximately 6 weeks post-metamorphosis) were collected on 30 September 1998 from a submarine ballast tank in Pearl Harbor, indicating that a successful recruitment event had taken place very soon after the first arrival of the species at this location. We suggest that even if M. galloprovincialis is not able to establish permanently within Pearl Harbor, the fact that it has been able to successfully spawn and recruit to another shipping vector within the Harbor indicates that a ‘stepping stone’ model of range expansion from temperate to temperate region via an intermediary subtropical environment is quite feasible for this species. Data from worldwide distributions of mussels of the family Mytilidae indicate that preferred habitats are eutrophic continental shelf regions, which suggests that successful establishment within Pearl Harbor is possible. However, oceanic coral-reef environments are not preferred habitat types, suggesting that M. galloprovincialis is not likely to become widely distributed in the Hawaiian Islands.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Belt Collins Hawaii (1998) Findings and conclusions on the use of Port of Astoria Pier 1 for low salinity treatment of marine fouling organisms attached to the ex-USS Missouri. Report submitted to the US Coast Guard, 433 Ala Moan Boulevard, Honolulu, HI 96813 by Belt Collins Hawaii, 680 Ala Moana Boulevard, Honolulu, HI 96813, 4 pp
Brock R, Bailey-Brock JH and Goody J (1999) A case study of efficacy of freshwater immersion in controlling introduction of alien marine fouling communities: the USS Missouri. Pacific Science 53: 223-231
Buchanan S and Babcock R (1997) Primary and secondary settlement by the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 71-76
Carlton JT (1989) Man's role in changing the face of the ocean: biological invasions and implications for conservation of nearshore environments. Conservation Biology 3: 265-273
Carlton JT and Geller JB (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport and invasion of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78-82
Chipperfield PNJ (1953) Observations on the breeding and settlement of Mytilus edulis (L.) in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 32: 449-476
DeFelice RC and Godwin LS (1999) Records of marine invertebrates in Hawaii from the hull of the USS Missouri in Pearl Harbor, Oahu. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 59: 42-46
Gardner JPA (1992) Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck) (Bivalvia: Mollusca): the taxonomic status of the Mediterranean mussel. Ophelia 35: 219-243
Gardner JPA (1994) The structure and dynamics of naturally occurring hybrid Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 and Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia, Mollusca) populations: review and interpretation. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Monographische Beitrage 99: 37-71
Geller JB (1996) Molecular approaches to the study of marine biological invasions. In: Ferraris JD and Palumbi SR (eds) Molecular Zoology, pp 119-132. Wiley-Liss, New York
Geller JB (1999) Decline of a native mussel masked by sibling species invasion. Conservation Biology 13: 661-664
Grant WS and Cherry MI (1985) Mytilus galloprovincialis in southern Africa. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 90: 179-191
Hilbish TJ, Mullinax A, Dolven SI, Meyer A, Koehn RK and Rawson PD (2000) Origin of the antitropical distribution pattern in marine mussels (Mytilus spp.): routes and timing of transequatorial migration. Marine Biology 136: 69-77
Holland BS (2000) Genetics of marine bioinvasions. Hydrobiologia 420: 63-71
Holland BS, Gallagher DS, Hicks DW and Davis SK (1999). Cytotaxonomic verification of a non-indigenous marine mussel in the Gulf of Mexico. Veliger 42: 280-282
Lee SY and Morton BS (1985) The introduction of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis into Hong Kong. Malacological Review 18: 107-109
McDonald JH, Seed R and Koehn RK (1991) Allozymes and morphometric characters of three species of Mytilus in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Marine Biology 111: 323-333
Quesada H, Zapata C and Alvarez G (1995) A multilocus allozyme discontinuity in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: the interaction of ecological and life-history factors. Marine Ecology Progress Series 116: 99-115
Rawson PD and Hilbish TJ (1995) Evolutionary relationships among the male and female mitochondrial DNA lineages in the Mytilus edulis species complex. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12: 893-901
Rawson PD, Joyner KL, Meetze K and Hilbish TJ (1996) Evidence for intragenic recombination within a novel genetic marker that distinguishes mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex. Heredity 77: 599-607
Seed R (1992) Systematics, evolution and distribution of mussels belonging to the genus Mytilus: an overview. American Malacological Bulletin 9: 123-137
Taylor JD (1997) Diversity and structure of tropical Indo-Pacific benthic communities: relation to regimes of nutrient input. In: Ormond RFG, Gage JD and Angel MV (eds) Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes, pp 178-200. Cambridge University Press, UK
Utting SD and Spencer BE (1997) The hatchery culture of bivalve mollusc larvae and juveniles. Laboratory leaflet no. 68. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft, UK, 32 pp
Wilkins NP, Fujino K and Gosling EM (1983) The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. in Japan. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 365-374
About this article
Cite this article
Apte, S., Holland, B.S., Godwin, L.S. et al. Jumping Ship: A Stepping Stone Event Mediating Transfer of a Non-indigenous Species Via a Potentially Unsuitable Environment. Biological Invasions 2, 75–79 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010024818644
- hull fouling
- marine mussel
- Mytilus galloprovincialis
- Pearl Harbor - Hawai'i
- stepping stone model
- USS Missouri