This review examines the recent investigations on the biological activities of extracts and chemicals identified from mangroves (mangroves, mangrove minors and mangal associates). It describes how people have and are using mangroves on a traditional basis. It also describes the world's mangrove resources and products, in terms of their economical importance, medicinal values and other uses and functions. The economical uses of products from mangrove ecosystems are many and varied. Traditionally, the mangroves have been exploited for firewood and charcoal. Use has also been found for mangroves in the construction of dwellings, furniture, boats and fishing gear, tannins for dyeing and leather production. The mangroves provide food and wide variety of traditional products and artefacts for the mangrove dwellers. Extracts and chemicals from mangroves are used mainly in folkloric medicine (e.g. bush medicine), as insecticides and piscicides and these practices continue to this day. However the extraction of novel natural chemical compounds from mangroves, in addition to those already known to the pharmacopoeia of the people is in its infancy. A knowledge of the biological activities and/or chemical constituents of plants is desirable, not only for the discovery of new therapeutic agents, but because such information may be of value in disclosing new sources of already known biologically active compounds. It is of further value to those interested in “deciphering” the actual value of folkloric remedies.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Adolf, W. and Hecker, E. 1984. On the active principles of the spurge family, X. Skin irritants, cocarcinogens, and cryptic cocarcinogens from the latex of the manchineel tree. Journal of Natural Products 46: 482–496.
Alvi, K.A., Crews, P., Aalbersberg, B. and Prasad, R. 1994. Limonoids from the Fijian medicinal plant Dabi (Xylocarpus). Tetrahedron Letters 47: 8943–8948.
Amarasinghe, M.D. 1988. Mangrove ecosystems: Occasional Papers No 3. Socio-economic status of the human communities of selected mangrove areas on the west coast of Sri Lanka, UNESCO publications, New Delhi, 19 pp.
Bandaranyake, W.M. 1995. Survey of mangrove plants from Northern Australia for phytochemical constituents and UV-absorbing compounds. Current Topics in Phytochemistry (Life Science Advances) 14: 69–78.
Barr, A., Chapman, J., Smith, N. and Beveridge, M. (eds), 1988. Traditional bush medicines: an Aboriginal pharmacopoeia. Greenhouse Publications Pty. Ltd., Victoria, Australia.
Belanger, L. and Bedard, J. 1994. Role of ice scouring and goose grubbing in marsh plant dynamics. Journal of Ecology 82: 437–445.
Biddlestone, A.J., Gray, K.R. and Thurairajan, K. 1991. A botanical approach to the treatment of waste waters. Journal of Biotechnology 17: 209–220.
Broom, S.W., Seneca, E.D. and Woodhouse, W.W. Jr. 1981. Planting marsh grasses for erosion control. Sea Grant Publication. North Carolina University Sea Grant Program. 11 pp.
Champagne, D.E., Koul, O., Isman, M.B., Scudder, G.G.E. and Towers, G.H.N. 1992. Biological activity of limonoids from the rutales. Phytochemistry 31: 377–394.
Chan H. T. and Salleh M. N. 1987. Traditional uses of the mangrove ecosystems. Mangrove Ecosystems: Occasional Papers No.1, UNESCO, New Delhi, 31 pp.
Chapman, V.J. 1977. Wet coastal ecosystems. Elsevier, 428 pp.
Chittawong, V. 1987. Toxicant from mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis. Ph.D. dissertation, Mississippi State University, MS, USA, 179 pp.
Chou, F.Y., Hostettmann, K., Kubo, I. and Nakanishi, K. 1977. Isolation of an insect antifeedant N-methylflindersine and several Benz[C]phenanthridine alkaloids from east African plants: a comment on Chelerythrine. Heterocycles 7: 969–977
Correll, D.S., Schubert, B.G., Gentry, H.S. and Hawley, W.D. 1955. The search for plant precursors of cortisone. Economic Botany 52: 307–375.
Costa, H.H. and Wijeyaratne, M.J.S. 1994. Utilization of mangrove species in brushpark construction and their effects on Negombo Estuary fishery (Sri Lanka). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 10: 96–103.
De La Cruz, A.A., Gomez, E.D., Miles, D.H., Cajipe, G.J.B. and Chavez, V.P. 1984. Toxicants from mangrove plants: bioassay of crude extract. Journal of Ecological and Environmental Science 10: 1–9.
Elanchezhiyan, M., Rajarajan, M., Rajendran, P., Subramanian, S. and Thyagarajan, S.P. 1993. Antiviral properties of the seed extract of an Indian medicinal plant, Pongamia pinnata, Linn., against herpes simplex viruses: In vitro studies on Vero cells. Journal of Medical Microbiology 38: 262–264.
FAO 1982. Management and Utilization of Mangrove in Asia and Pacific. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Environment Paper No.3, Rome, 26 pp.
FAO 1985. Mangrove management in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Environment Paper No.4, Rome, 59 pp.
Field, C. 1995. Journeys amongst mangroves. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan. South China Printing Co., Hong Kong, 140 pp.
Ganguly, S.N. and Sircar, S.M. 1974. Gibberellins from mangrove plants. Phytochemistry 13: 1911–1913.
Geissman, T.A. and Crout, D.H.G. 1969. Organic chemistry of secondary plant metabolism. Freeman, Cooper & Company Publishers, USA, 185 pp.
Gomez, E.D., De La Cruz, A.A., Chavez, V.B., Miles, D.H. and Cajipe, G.J.B. 1986. Toxicants from mangrove plants: 2. Toxicity of aqueous extracts to fish. Philippines. Journal of Science 115: 81–89.
Gunawardena, N.E. 1994. Steam volatiles of coconut bark: chemical investigations and electroantennogram responses of the coconut pest, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus(Coleoptera:Curculionidae). Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka 22: 231–238.
Heinsohn, R.D. and Cunningham, A.B. 1991. Utilization and potential cultivation of the saltmarsh rush Juncus kraussii. South African Journal of Botany 57: 1–5.
Higake, M. 1987. Studies on the new analytical method ofmangrove tannin and the utilization of mangrove wood and seed. UNESCO Regional Seminar on the Chemistry of Mangrove Plants. Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 160–225.
Iinuma, M., Tosa, H., Tanaka, T. and Yonemori S. 1994. Two xanthones from root bark of Calophyllum inophyllum. Phytochemistry 35: 527–532.
Jongsuvat, Y. 1981. Investigation of anticancer from Acanthus illicifolius. MS Thesis. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Kamboj, V.P., Setty, B.S., Garg, H.S. and Khanna, N.M. 1976. Spermicidal potential of saponins isolated from Indian medicinal plants. Contraception 14: 175–199.
Kapil, A., Sharma, S. and Wahidulla, S. 1994. Leishmanicidal activity of 2-Benzoxazolinone from Acanthus illicifolius in vitro. Planta Medica 60: 187–188
Kathiresan, K. 1995. Studies on tea from mangrove leaves. Environmental Ecology 13: 321–323.
Kawashima, T., Takahashi, T., Inoue, Y., Kodama, M. and Ito, S. 1971. Euphorbiaceae: Constitiuents of Excoecaria agallocha. Phytochemistry 10: 3308–3309.
Knox, G.A. and Miyabara, T. 1984. Coastal zone resource development and conservation in South East Asia, with special reference to Indonesia. UNESCO, Jakarta, Indonesia, 182 pp.
Kokpol, U., Chittawong, V. and Mills, H.D. 1984. Chemical constituents of the roots of Acanthus illicifolius. Journal of Natural Products 49: 355–356.
Kokpol, U., Chavasiri, W., Chittawong, V. and Miles, D.H. 1990a. Taraxeryl cis-p-hydroxycinnamate, a novel taraxeryl from Rhizophora apiculata. Journal of Natural Products 53: 953–955.
Kokpol, U., Miles, D.H., Payne, A.M. and Chittawong, V. 1990b. Chemical constituents and bioactive compounds from mangrove plants. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed), Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Vol. 7. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam. pp. 175–195.
Krishnamoorthy, P., Maruthanayagam, C. and Subramaniam, P. 1995. Toxic effect of mangrove plant (Excoecaria agallochaL.) latex on the larvae of fresh water prawn Macrobrachium lamarrei lamarrei. Environmental Ecology 13: 708–710.
Kubo, I., Miura, I. And Nakanishi, K. 1976. The structure of xylomollin, a secoiridoid hemiacetal acetal. Journal of the American Chemical Society 98: 6704–6705.
Larson, R.A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry 27: 969–978.
Latif, F., 1965. Viscose grade rayon pulp from sundari (Heritiera minor). TAPPI Journal of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. 48: 716–720.
Lawanyawudhi, K. 1982. Rotenone and the fisheries. Thai Fisheries Gazette. 35: 411–419.
Liu, H.W. and Nakanishi, K. 1982. The stucture of balanitins, potent molluscicides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca. Tetrahedron 38: 513–519.
Loder, J.W. and Russell, G.B. 1969. Tumour inhibitory plants. The alkaloids of Bruguiera sexangulaand Bruguiera exaristata(Rhizophoraceae). Australian Journal of Chemistry 22: 1271–1275.
Mahato, S.B., Sarkar, S.K. and Poddar, G. 1988. Triterpenoid saponins. Phytochemistry 27: 3037–3067.
Marston, A. and Hostettmann, K. 1985. Plant molluscicides. Phytochemistry 24: 639–652.
Mercer, D.E. and Hamilton, L.S. 1984. Mangrove ecosystems: some economic and natural benefits. Natural Resources 20: 14–19.
Miles, D.H., Chittawong, V., Lho, D.S., Payne, A.M., De La Cruz, A.A., Gomez, E.D., Weeks, J.A. and Atwood, J.L. 1991. Toxicants from mangrove plants, VII. Vallapin and vallapianin, novel sesquiterpene lactones from the mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis. Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia) 54: 286–289.
Miles, D.H., Tunsuwan, K., Chittawong, V., Kokpol, U., Choudhary, M.I. and Clardy, J. 1993. Boll weevil antifeedants from Arundo donax. Phytochemistry 34: 1277–1279.
Miles, D.H., Tunsuwan, K., Chittawong, V., Hedin, P.A. and Kokpol, U. 1994. Boll weevil antifeedants from Eleocharis dulcis. Trin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42: 1561–1562.
Minocha, P.K. and Tiwari, K.P. 1981. A triterpenoidal saponin from roots of Acanthus illicifolius. Phytochemistry 20: 135–137.
Molyneux, F. 1972. Derris– a natural pesticide. Australian Chemical Processing and Engineering 25:9–12.
Mulder, C.P.H., Ruess, R.W. and Sedinger, J.S. 1996. Effects of environmental manipulations on Triglochin palustris: Implications for the role of goose herbivory in controlling its distribution. Journal of Ecology 84: 267–278.
Mulholland, D.A. and Taylor, D.A.H. 1992. Limonoids from Australian members of the Meliaceae. Phytochemistry 31: 4163–4166.
Orzechowski, G. 1962. Flavonoid in der therapie. Planta Medica 10: 404–411.
Padamakumar, R. and Ayyakkannu, K. 1994. Third International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Tromsoe, Norway, 7–12 August 1994, Tromsoe University, Tromsoe (Norway) Publishers, pp 98–99.
Padmakumar, K., Ramaswamy, S., Ayyakkannu, K. and Nair, P.G.V. 1993. Analgesic activity of marine plants. In: Devadasan, K., Mukundan, M.K., Antony, P.D., Nair, P.G.V., Perigreen, P.A. and Joseph, J. (eds), Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms. Paper presented in the Symposium held in Cochin, India 16–17 September 1993. Society of Fisheries Technologists (India), Cochin (India) publishers, pp 25–30.
Paeivoeke, A., Adams, M.R. and Twiddy, D.R. 1984. Nipa palm vinegar in Papua New Guinea. Process Biochemistry 19: 84–87.
Patil, A.D., Freyer, A.J., Eggleston, D.S., Haltiwanger, R.C., Bean, M.F., Taylor, P.B., Caranfa, M.J., Breen, A.L., Bartus, H.R., Johnson, R.K., Hertzberg, R.P. and Westley, J.W. 1993. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllumLinn. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 36: 4132–4138
Payne, A.M. 1991. Synthesis and isolation of constituents from aquatic plants. Ph.D. dissertation, Mississippi State University, MS, 225 pp.
Pehrsson, O. 1988. Effects of grazing and inundation on pasture quality and seed production in salt marsh. Vegetation 74: 113–124.
Premnathan, M., Chandra, K., Bajpai, S.K. and Kathiresan, K. 1992. A survey of some Indian marine plants for antiviral activity. Botanica Marina 35: 321–324.
Queen, W.H. 1977. Human use of salt marshes. In: Chapman, V.J. (ed), Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier Scientific, New York, pp. 363–367.
Ramamurthi, R., Jayasundaramma, B., Lakshmi Rayjam, C., Prasad, D.V.L.N. and Varalakshmi, C. 1991. Studies on marine bioactive substances from the Bay of Bengal. In: Thompson, M.F., Sarojini, R. and Nagabhushanam, R. (eds), Bioactive Substances from the Latex of the Mangrove Plant Excoecaria agallochaL.: Effects on the Oxidative Metabolism of Crabs. Bioactive compounds from marine organisms with emphasis on the Indian Ocean, An Indo-United States Symposium, Goa (India), pp. 105–109.
Rao, K.V. 1974. Toxic principles of Hippomane mancinella. Planta Medica 25: 166–171.
Rasolofo, M.V., 1997. Use of mangroves by traditional fishermen in Madagascar. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1: 243–253
Reddy, T.K.K., Rajasekhar, A., Jayasunderamma, B. and Ramamurti, R. 1991. Studies on marine bioactive substances from the Bay of Bengal: Bioactive substances from the latex of the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallochaL: In: Thompson, M.F., Sarojini, R. and Nagabhushanam, R. (eds), Antimicrobial Activity and Degradation. Bioactive compounds from marine organisms with emphasis on the Indian Ocean: An Indo-United States Symposium, Goa (India), pp. 75–78.
Rollet, B. 1981. Bibliography on mangrove research. 1600–1975. UNESCO Paris. Information Retrieval Ltd., London, 479 pp.
Rotimi, V.O., Laughon, B.E., Bartlett, J.G. and Mosadomi, H.A. 1988. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 32: 598–600.
Say, P.J., Burrows, L.G. and Whitton, B.A. 1990. Enteromorphaas a monitor of heavy metals in estuaries. North Sea-Estuaries Interactions. Hydrobiologia 195: 119–126.
Scalbert, A. 1991 Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30: 3875–3883.
Sil, H., Ray, K. and Kaviraj, A. 1995. Nutritive values of leaf and leaf litters of two mangroves of the sundarbans for prawn and fish culture. National Academy of Science Letters 181(1–2): 43–46.
Stafford, H.A. 1988. Proanthocyanidins and the lignan connection. Phytochemistry 27: 1–6.
Thangam, T.S. and Kathiresan, K. 1991. Mosquito larvicidal activity of marine plant extracts with synthetic insecticides. Botanica Marina 34: 537–539.
Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 413 pp.
Tosa, H., Iinuma, M., Tanaka, T., Nozaki, H., Ikeda, S., Tsutsui, K., Yamada, M. and Fujimori, S. 1997. Inhibitory activity of xanthone derivatives isolated from some guttiferaeous plants against DNA topoisomerases I and II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 45: 418–420.
Vannucci, M. 1989. The mangroves and us. Indian Association for the Advancement of Science. New Delhi, 203 pp.
Walsh, G.E. 1977. Exploitation of Mangal. In: Chapman, V.J. (ed), Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier Scientific, New York, pp. 347–35.
Watson, J.G. 1929. Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malay Forest Reclaimation No. 6, 275 pp.
About this article
Cite this article
Bandaranayake, W. Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2, 133–148 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009988607044
- biological activities
- economical uses
- mangal associates