Riley encased methodology (REM) was developed for the purpose of establishing mangroves along high‐energy shorelines, revetments, and bulkheads where natural recruitment no longer occurs and where conventional planting methods are ineffective. The principles of REM include the processes of individual seedling isolation within tubular encasements and adaptation of the juvenile plant to the external environment of the restoration site. The success of REM results from specifications for encasement preparation, propagule or seedling selection, and positioning of both encasements and seedlings according to elevation and tidal regimes.
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Riley, R.W., Kent, C.P.S. Riley encased methodology: principles and processes of mangrove habitat creation and restoration. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 3, 207–213 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009963124225