Advertisement

Biomedical Microdevices

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 283–294 | Cite as

Micromachined, Polyimide-Based Devices for Flexible Neural Interfaces

  • Thomas Stieglitz
  • Hansjo¨rg Beutel
  • Martin Schuettler
  • J.-Uwe Meyer
Article

Abstract

Micromachining technologies were established to fabricate microelectrode arrays and devices for interfacing parts of the central or peripheral nervous system in case of neuronal disorders. The devices were part of a neural prosthesis that allows simultaneous multichannel recording and multisite stimulation of neurons. Overcoming the brittle mechanics of silicon, we established a process technology to fabricate light-weighted and highly flexible polyimide based devices. Concerning the challenging housing demands close to the nerve to prevent mechanical induced nerve traumatization, we integrated interconnects to decouple the nerve interface from plugs and signal processing electronics. Hybrid integration with a new assembling technique—the MicroFlex interconnection (MFI)—has been applied for the connection of the flexible microsystems to silicon microelectronics. In this paper, we present different shapes and applications of the flexible electrodes: sieve electrodes for regeneration studies, cuff electrodes for interfacing peripheral nerves, and a retina implant for ganglion cell stimulation. The discussion is focused on electrode and material properties and the hybrid assembly of a fully implantable neural prosthesis.

neural prostheses MEMS polyimide electrical stimulation implant 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Akin, K. Najafi, R.H. Smoke, and R.M. Bradley, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 305-313 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Akin, B. Ziaie, S.A. Nikles, and K. Najafi, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(4), 471-480 (1999).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Bragin, J. Hetke, C.L. Wilson, D.J. Anderson, J. Engel, and G. Buzsáki, J. Neurosci. Meth. 98, 77-82 (2000).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Beutel, T. Stieglitz and J.-U. Meyer, in Smart Structures and Materials 1988: Smart Electronics and MEMS, Vijay K. Varadan, Paul J. McWhorter, Richard A. Singer, Michael J. Vellekoop (eds), Proceedings of SPIE 3328, 174-182 (1998).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Beutel, T. Stieglitz, O. Scholz, and J.-U. Meyer, Proc. of the IEEE Second International Workshop on Chip-Package Co-Design (CPD 2000), March 14–15, 2000, Zurich/Switzerland, pp. 9-14 (2000).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Bolz. Die Bedeutung der Phasengrenze zwischen alloplastischen Festkörpern und biologischen Geweben für die Elektrostimulation. (Fachverlag Schiele und Schön, Berlin, 1995).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.S. Brindley, C.C. Polkey, D.N. Rushton, and L. Cardozo, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 49, 1104-1114 (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.H. Dobelle, ASAIO J. 46(1), 3-9 (2000).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.J. Edell, J.N. Churchill, and I.M. Gourley, Biomat., Med. Dev., Art. Org. 10(2), 103-122 (1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.J. Edell, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 33(2), 203-214 (1986).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Gerding, S. Taneri, F.P. Benner, J.-U. Meyer, T. Stieglitz, S. Kupich, and C.E. Uhlig, in Orloff, C. Kohnen, T, and Wenzel, M, (Hrsg:) 13. Jahrestagung der DGII. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2000a) pp. 349-355.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Gerding, R. Hornig, C. Köhler, S. Taneri, F.P. Benner, B. Niggemann, C.E. Uhlig, T. Stieglitz, J.-U. Meyer, and R. Eckmiller, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41, S860 (2000b).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H.S. Haggerty and H.S. Lusted, Acta Otolaryngol. 107, 13-22 (1989).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.K. Haugland and T. Sinkjaer, IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng. 3, 307-317 (1995).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.F. Hetke, K. Najafi, and K.D. Wise, Sensors and Actuators A21–A23, 999-1002 (1990).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.E. Loeb and R.A. Peck, J. Neurosci. Meth. 64, 95-103 (1996).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Najafi, J. Jin, and K.D. Wise, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 1-11 (1990).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G.G. Naples, J.T. Mortimer, A. Scheiner, and J.D. Sweeney, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 905-916 (1988).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    X. Navarro, S. Calvet, M. Butí, N. Gómez, E. Cabruja, P. Garrido, R. Villa, and E. Valderrama, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 9, 151-160 (1996).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    X. Navarro, S. Calvet, F.J. Rodríguez, T. Stieglitz, C. Blau, M. Butí, E. Valderrama, and J.-U. Meyer. J. Peripheral Nervous System 3(2), 91-101 (1998).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    X. Navarro, F.J. Rodríguez, D. Ceballos, E. Valderrama, M. Schuettler, and T. Stieglitz, Exp. Neurol. 163, 307-308 (2000).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.L. Perlman, A.Y. Chow, and N.S. Peachey, Invest. Ophthal. and Vis. Sci. 37,(Suppl.), 96 (1996).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R.R. Richardson, J.A. Miller, and W.M. Reichert, J. Biomat. 14, 627-635 (1993).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.F. Rizzo, S. Miller, T. Denison, T. Herndon, and J.L. Wyatt, Invest. Ophthal. and Vis. Sci. 37,(Suppl.), 707 (1996).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.J. Rodríguez, D. Ceballos, M. Schuettler, E. Valderrama, T. Stieglitz, and X. Navarro, J. Neuroscience Methods 98, 105-118 (2000).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.S. Stensaas and L.J. Stensaas, Acta Neuropath. (Berl.) 41, 145-155 (1978).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Stieglitz, H. Beutel, R. Keller, C. Blau, and J.-U. Meyer, Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2307-2310, 1997.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Walter, P. Szurman, N. Peixoto, S. Strassburger, H.K. Trieu, L. Ewe, T. Stieglitz, J.-U. Meyer, and K. Heimann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(4), S990 (1998).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Veraart, J. Delbeke, M.-C. Wanet-Defalque, A. Vanlierde, G. Michaux, S. Parrini, O. Glineur, M. Verkeysen, C. Trullemans, and J.T. Mortimer, Proc. 4th Ann. Int. Conf. Int. Funct. Electr. Stim. Soc. 57-59 (1999).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    W. Winkelmüller, Der Schmerz 5, 243-246 (1991).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Stieglitz
    • 1
  • Hansjo¨rg Beutel
    • 1
  • Martin Schuettler
    • 1
  • J.-Uwe Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Sensor Systems/Microsystems DepartmentFraunhofer-Institute for Biomedical EngineeringSankt IngbertGermany

Personalised recommendations