Skip to main content

The Relationship Between Modified Pulse Wave Transit Time and Cardiovascular Changes in Isoflurane Anesthetized Dogs

Abstract

Objective.To clarify the relationship between blood pressure andpulse wave transit time at the peripheral artery from the R wave of theelectrocardiogram (m-PWTT), the effects of cardiovascular interventions onthis relationship was evaluated. Methods.Ten mongrel dogs wereanesthetized by isoflurane inhalation, and catheter tip pressure transducerswere inserted into the ascending aorta and at the bifurcation of abdominalaorta to measure central and peripheral pulse wave arrival. Pulse wave arrivalat the ascending aorta from the R wave represents pre-ejection period (PEP)and pulse wave arrival between the ascending aorta and bifurcation of aortarepresents pulse wave transit time (PWTT), thus m-PWTT = PEP + PWTT.Hypertension was induced by the continuous infusion of dobutamine andphenylephrine, and hypotension was induced by deepening isoflurane anesthesia,acute blood loss and nitroglycerine infusion. The relationship between timingcomponents (PWTT, PEP, and m-PWTT) and blood pressure was recorded andanalyzed by using the least squares method. Results.The relationshipbetween timing components (PWTT, PEP and, m-PWTT) and blood pressure wassignificant and highly correlated. When the change in blood pressure was dueto the myocardial contractility, such as after dobutamine infusion, therelationship between all timing components and blood pressure was consistentand negative. However, when the change in blood pressure was due to thevasoactive agents, such as phenylephrine, the relationship between timingcomponents and blood pressure was dependent on the reflex change in PEP.Conclusions.Change in m-PWTT is a good parameter to predict bloodpressure changes, although the absolute blood pressure value cannot beobtained.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

REFERENCES

  1. Hardy HH, Collins RE. On the pressure-volume relationship in circulatory elements. Med Biol Eng Comput 1982; 29: 565–570

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dahn I, Jonson B, Nilsen R. Plethysmographic in vivo determinations of elastic properties of arteries in man. J Appl Physiol 1971; 28: 328–332

    Google Scholar 

  3. Schimmler W. Correlation between the pulse wave velocity in the aortic iliac vessel and age, sex and blood pressure. Angiology 1966; 17: 314–322

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Learoyd BM, Tayler MG. Alterations with age in the visco-elastic properties of human arterial walls. Circ Res 1966; 18: 278–292

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Simon AC, Levenson J, Bouthier J et al. Evidence of early degenerative changes in large arteries in human essential hypertension. Hypertension 1985; 7: 675–680

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Farrar DJ, Bond MG, Sawyer JK et al. Pulse wave velocity and morphological changes associated with early atherosclerosis progression in the aortas of cynomolgus monkeys. Cardiovasc Res 1984; 18: 107–118

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Hasegawa M, Nagao K, Kinoshita Y et al. Increased pulse wave velocity and shortened pulse wave transmission time in hypertension and aging. Cardiology 1997; 88: 147–151

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Contrada RJ, Del Bo A, Levy L et al. Form and magnitude of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic in£uence on pulse wave transit time. Psychophysiology 1995; 32: 329–334

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Okada S, Ishii K, Hamada H et al. Relationship between cardiac autonomic neuropathy and diabetic microangio-pathies and macroangiopathy in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Int Med Res 1996; 24: 92–98

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. McDonald DA, Regional pulse-wave velocity in the arterial tree. J Appl Physiol 1968; 24: 73–78

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Nichols WW, McDonald DA. Wave-velocity in the proximal aorta. Med Biol Eng 1972; 10: 327–335

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Greene ES Gerson JI., Arterial pulse wave velocity: A limited index of systemic vascular resistance during normotensive anesthesia in dogs. J Clin Monit 1985; 1: 219–226

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Obrist PA, Light KC, McCubbin JA et al. Pulse transit time: Relationship to blood pressure and myocardial performance. Psychophysiology 1979; 16: 292–301

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Geddes LA, Voelz MH, Babbs CF et al. Pulse transit Fig. 3. Simulated changes in vascular elasticity (Elasticity), pulse wave velocity (PWV), pulse wave transit time (PWTT) in relation to the blood (transmural) pressure change between 50 and 250 mmHg.The values are calculated from the physiological parameters by Hardy et al. [1]. 500 Journal of ClinicalMonitoring and Computing Vol 15 Nos 7–8 December 1999 time as an indicator of arterial blood pressure. Psycho-physiology 1981; 18: 71–74

    Google Scholar 

  15. Gribbin B, Steptoe A, Sleight P. Pulse wave velocity as a measure of blood pressure change. Psychophysiology 1976; 13: 86–90

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Young CC, Mark JB, White W et al. Clinical evaluation of continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring: Accuracy and tracking capability. J Clin Monit 1995; 11: 245–252

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Wippermann CF, Schranz D, Huth RG. Evaluation of the pulse wave arrival time as marker for blood pressure changes in critically ill infants and children. J Clin Monit 1995; 11: 324–328

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Newlin DB. Relationship of pulse transmission times to pre-ejection period and blood pressure. Psychophysiology 1981; 18: 316–321

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Seagard JL, Elegbe EO, Hop FA et al. Effects of isoflurane on the baroreceptor reflex. Anesthesiology 1983; 59: 511–20

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Stevens WC, Cromwell TH, Halsey MJ et al.The cardiovascular effects of a new inhalation anesthetic, Forane, in human volunteers at constant arterial carbon dioxide tension. Anesthesiology 1971; 35: 8–16

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Philbin DM and Lowenstein E. Lack of beta-adrenergic activity of isoflurane in the dog: A comparison of circulatory effects of halothane and iso£urane after propranolol administration. Br J Anaesth 1976; 48: 1165–1170

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Ahmed SS, Levinson GE, Schwartz CJ et al. Systolic time intervals as measures of the contractile state of the left ventricular myocardium in man. Circulation 1972; 46: 559–571

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Bramwell JC, Hill AV. The velocity of the pulse wave in man. Proc R Soc 1922; 42: 298–306

    Google Scholar 

  24. Steele JM. Interpretation of arterial elasticity from measurements of pulse wave velocity. I. Effects of pressure. Am Heart J 1937; 14: 452–465

    Google Scholar 

  25. Pruett JD, Bourland JD, Geddes lA. Measurement of pulse-wave velocity using a beat-sampling technique. Ann Biomed Eng 1988; 16: 341–347

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Nye ER. The effect of blood pressure alteration on the pulse wave velocity in the brachial artery in man. Br Heart J 1964; 26: 261–265

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ochiai, R., Takeda, J., Hosaka, H. et al. The Relationship Between Modified Pulse Wave Transit Time and Cardiovascular Changes in Isoflurane Anesthetized Dogs. J Clin Monit Comput 15, 493–501 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009950731297

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009950731297

  • Monitoring: blood pressure
  • Monitoring: pulse wave transit time
  • Pharmacology: catecholamines
  • Pharmacology: dobutamine
  • Pharmacology: phenylephrine
  • Heart: vascular tone