Skip to main content

A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea

Abstract

A mangrove stand of Avicennia marina located at the South Corniche of Jeddah city receives about 100 000 m3 of sewage per day. The sewage has high values of BOD, COD, nutrient concentrations, heavy metals and faecal coliform counts.

The mangrove stand is very small and occupies an area of about 0.45 km2. The trees are stunted with low pneumatophore density. The pneumatophore distribution is restricted to the area of substrate underneath the plant crown covers and they do not look healthy. A high proportion of them was observed to be dead and/or aberrant. These abnormal induced features were attributed to the sewage discharge in the area. The death of pneumatophores decreases the aeration area which apparently affects the respiration rate of the root system, nutrient uptake and plant growth, consequently leading to a retarded growth of the mangroves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Böer, B. 1993. Anomalous pneumatophores and adventitious roots of Avicennia marina (Forssk) Vierh. Mangroves two years after the 1991 Gulf War oil spill in Saudi Arabia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 27: 207–211.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawes, C.J. 1981. Mangrove communities. pp. 516–538. In: Dawes, C.J. (ed.), Marine Botany. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dicks, B. 1986. Oil and the black mangrove, Avicennia marina in the northern Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17: 500–503.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gambrell, R.P., Khalid, R.A. and Patrick, W.H. Jr. 1987. Capacity of a swamp forest to assimilate the TOC loading from a sugar refinery wastewater stream. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 59(10): 897–904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Getter, C.D., Cintron, G., Dicks, B., Lewis, R.R. and Seneca, E.D. 1984. The recovery and restoration of salt marshes and mangrove following an oil spill. pp. 65–113. In: Cairns, J. and Buikema, A. (eds), Restoration of Habitats Impacted by Oil Spills. Butterworth Publishers, Stoneham, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenden, O. and Jernelov, A. 1980. The mangrove swamp – an ecosystem in danger. Ambio. 9: 81–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, R.R. 1982. Mangrove forests. pp. 153–171. In: Lewis, R.R. (ed.), Creation and Restoration of Coastal Plant Communities. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lugo, A.E. and Snedaker, S.C. 1974. The ecology of mangroves. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 39–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macnae, W. 1968. A general account of the fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in the Indo-West Pacific Region. Advances in Marine Biology 6: 73–270.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandura, A.S., Saifullah, S.M. and Khafaji, A.K. 1987. Mangrove ecosystem of southern Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the Saudi Biology Society 10: 165–193.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandura, A.S., Khafaji, A.K. and Saifullah, S.M. 1988. Ecology of a mangrove stand of a Central Red Sea Coast Area: Ras Hatiba (Saudi Arabia). Proceedings of the Saudi Biological Society 11: 85–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandura, A.S. and Khafaji, A.K. 1993. Human impact on the mangrove of Khor Farasan Island, Southern Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 1, pp. 353–361. In: Leith, H. and Al Masoom, H. (eds), Towards the Rational Use of High Salinity Tolerant Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandura, A.S. and Khafaji, A.K. 1994. An aerial survey aided ecological remarks on mangrove forests of Farasan Archipelago (Red Sea). pp. 16–24. In: Anaya-Garduño, M., Pascual-Moncayo, M. and Zarate-Zarate, R. (eds.). International Conference on Desert Development (25–30 July 1994), Mexico. Published by International Desert Development Commission.

  • Mandura, A.S., El-Hassan, A.M., Choudhry, F.A. and Muddarris, M.S. 1994. The effect of sewage pollution of Jeddah city on the South Corniche marine environment including a nearby mangrove stand. A final report submitted to King Abdulaziz University, Project grant No. 164/412, 179 pp.

  • Mufti, N.M. 1990. Studies of some aspects of Shu'Aybah mangrove ecosystem. M.Sc. thesis, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, 177 pp. (in Arabic).

    Google Scholar 

  • Saifullah, S.M. 1982. Mangrove ecosystem of Pakistan. pp. 69–80. In: The Third Research on Mangroves in Middle East. Publ. No. 137. Tokyo, Japan Cooperation Center for the Middle East.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saifullah, S.M. and Elahi, E. 1992. Pneumatophores density and size in mangroves of Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 24(1): 5–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saifullah, S.M., Shaukat, S.S. and Shams, S. 1994. Population structure and dispersion pattern in mangrove of Karachi, Pakistan. Aquatic Botany 47: 329–340.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snedaker, S.C., Jimenez, J.A. and Brown, M.S. 1981. Anomalous roots in Avicennia germinars L. in Florida and Costa Rica. Bulletin of Marine Science 31: 467–470.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snedaker, C.S. 1984. Mangroves: A summary of knowledge with emphasis on Pakistan, pp. 255–261. In: Haq, B.U. and Milliman, J.D. (eds), Marine Geology and Oceanography of Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, R.E. 1977. Intertidal vegetation and commercial yields of penaeid shrimp. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(5): 411–416.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Sydney, 413 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vessey-Fitzgerald, D.F. 1957. Vegetation of the Red Sea coast north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Ecology 45: 547–569.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, G.E. 1974. Mangroves: A review. pp. 51–174. In: Reimold, R. and Queen, W. (eds), Ecology of Halophytes. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wathugala, A.G., Suzuki, T. and Kurihara, Y. 1985. Studies on the removal of phosphorus from the wastewater using sand filtration pot systems with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia. pp. 332–335. In: Laster, J.N. and Kirk, P.W.W. (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Management Strategies for Phosphorus in the Environment, Publisher Selper, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, A.G. 1983. Distribution of mangrove species in Australia, Ch. 6. In: Teas, H.J. (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves. Tasks for vegetation sciences. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wong, Y.S., Lan. C.Y., Che. S.H., Li, X.R. and Tam, N.F.Y. 1995. Effect of wastewater discharge on nutrient contamination of mangrove soil and plants. Hydrobiologia 295: 243–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahran, M.A. 1975. Biogeography of mangrove vegetation along the Red Sea coasts, pp. 43–51. In: Walsh, G.E., Snedaker, S.C. and Teas, H. (eds), Proceedings of the International Symposium Management of Mangroves, 8–11 October, 1974. East-West Center, Honolulu, University of Florida, Gainesville, 8446 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahran, M.A. 1977. Africa A. Wet formations of the African Red Sea coast. pp. 215–231. In: V.G. Chapman (ed.), Wet Coastal Ecosystem. Elesevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahran, M.A. 1983. Introduction to Plant Ecology and vegetation types of Saudi Arabia. Faculty of Meteorology and Environmental Studies Publicaltions, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 142 pp.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mandura, A. A mangrove stand under sewage pollution stress: Red Sea. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1, 255–262 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009927605517

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009927605517

  • mangrove
  • sewage/pollution
  • aberrant/dead/pneumatophore
  • Red Sea