Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 67–74 | Cite as

Phosphorus and potassium soil test and nitrogen leaf analysis as a base for citrus fertilization

  • J. A. Quaggio
  • H. Cantarella
  • B. van Raij
Article

Abstract

A network of six NPK long-term field trials was carried out on different soils of citrus-producing regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, in order to estimate quantitative relations of fruit yield to NPK fertilization and to determine parameters for fertilizer recommendation based on soil testing and leaf analysis. The experiments were set up in an incomplete factorial design 1/2 43 with 32 treatments, with four yearly rates of N (30, 100, 170 and 240 kg N/ha), P (9, 27, 45 and 63 kg P/ha) and K (25, 91, 157 and 223 kg K/ha). Four to seven harvests were recorded for the six experiments. Response surfaces of the type y = bo + b1N + b11N2 + b2P + b22P2 + b3K + b33K2 + b12NP + b13NK + b23PK were adjusted to the average yields of each trial. Correlation were established for yield increases, expressed as relative yields, and results of soil analysis of P and K, and leaf analysis of N. Soil samples taken at 0-20 cm depth in the beginning of each experiment were analyzed for resin extractable P and exchangeable K using an ion-exchange resin procedure. Yield responses for phosphorus and potassium applications were observed respectively in soils with less than 20 mg dm-3 of P and 20 mmolc dm-3 of K+. Yield responses to nitrogen were related to the total content of nitrogen in leaves, being largest for N values of 23 g kg-1 and smallest for N of 28 kg-1. With these field information, a practical approach for fertilizer recommendation for citrus, based on soil analysis for P and K and leaf analysis for N, was developed.

citrus soil analysis leaf analysis calibration fertilizer response fertilizerrecommendation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson C A (1966) Effects of phosphate fertilizer on yield and quality of 'Valencia' oranges. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 79: 36-40Google Scholar
  2. Anderson C A (1983) Comparison of Mehlich I and Bray I soil tests for phosphorus in citrus groves. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 42: 146-149Google Scholar
  3. Andrade DF & Noleto AQ (1986) Exemplos de fatoriais fracionados (1/2) 43 e (1/4) 44 para ajuste demodelos polinomiais quadráticos. Pesq. agropec. bras. 21: 677-680Google Scholar
  4. Bataglia O C, Furlani A M C, Teixeira J P F, Furlani P R and Gallo J R (1983) Métodos de análise química de plantas. Campinas, Instituto Agronômico, 48p. (Boletim Técnico, 78).Google Scholar
  5. Bray R H(1948) Correlation of soil tests with crop response to added fertilizers and fertilizer requirements. Diagnostic Techniques for Soils and Crops, InKitchen HB (ed). pp 53-86. American Potash Institute, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantarella H, Quaggio J A, Bataglia O C & Raij B van (1992) Response of citrus to NPK fertilization in a network of field trials in São Paulo State, Brazil. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture. 2: 607-612Google Scholar
  7. Colwell J D (1978) Computations for studies of soil fertility and fertilizer requirements. Commonw. Agric. Bur., Australia. 297pGoogle Scholar
  8. Colwell J D (1983) Fertilizer requirement. In:Soils: an Australian Viewpoint. Division of Soils, CSIRO, Melbourne, pp 795-815. Academic Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  9. Du Plessis S F (1977) Soil analysis as a necessary complement to leaf analysis for fertiliser advisory purposes. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 1: 15-19Google Scholar
  10. Du Plessis S F & Koen T J (1992) Leaf analysis norms for lemons [Citrus limon(L.) Burm.]. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 2: 551-552Google Scholar
  11. Du Plessis S F, Koen T J & Odendaal W J (1992) Interpretation of Valencia leaf analysis by means of the N/K ratio approach. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 2: 553-555Google Scholar
  12. Gallash P T (1992) The use in Southern Australia of citrus leaf analysis to develop more efficient fertiliser programs. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 2: 560-563Google Scholar
  13. Gallo J R, Hiroce R & Rodriguez O (1966) Correlação entre composição das folhas e produção e tamanho de frutas de laranjeira baianinha. Bragantia 25: 77-88Google Scholar
  14. Guardiola J L, Vivas S & Gonçales-Sicilia E (1973) The effectiveness of leaf nitrogen content as an index to nitrogen nutrition. I. Congreso Mundial de Citricultura, Murcia-Valencia, Spain. 1: 151-157Google Scholar
  15. Grupo Paulista de Adubação & Calagem para Citros (1988) Recomendações de adubação e calagem para citros no Estado de São Paulo. 1α. ed. Laranja 11, 14pGoogle Scholar
  16. Grupo Paulista de Adubação & Calagem para Citros. (1994) Recomendações de adubação e calagem para citros no Estado de São Paulo. 3a. ed. Laranja, 27pGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanlon E A, Obreza T A & Alva A K (1995) Tissue and Plant Analysis. In:Tucker D P H, Alva A K, Jackson L K & Wheaton T A (eds). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Trees, pp 13-16. University of Florida, IFAS, Lake Alfred, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. Hunziker R R (1960) The relationship of soil potassium and leaf potassium status to yield of citrus in the Indian River area. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 73: 36-39Google Scholar
  19. Jones WW & TW Embleton (1969) Development and current status of citrus leaf analysis as a guide to fertilization in California. Proc. First Int. Citrus Symposium 3: 1669-1671Google Scholar
  20. Koo R C J (1962) The use of leaf, fruit, and soil analysis in estimating potassium status of orange trees. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 75: 67-72Google Scholar
  21. Legaz F & Primo Millo E (1988) Normas para la fertilizacion de los agrios. Valencia, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias. 29p. (Fullets Divulgació, 5)Google Scholar
  22. Malavolta E (1992) Leaf analysis in Brazil - present and perspectives. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 2: 570-574Google Scholar
  23. Raij B van (1974) Calibração de potá ssio trocável em solos para feijão, algodão e cana de açucar. Ciência e Cultura 26: 575-578Google Scholar
  24. Raij B van, Feitosa C T & Quaggio J A (1983) Soil testing as a basis of phosphorus recomendations for maize. 3rd. International Congress of Phosphorus Compounds. pp 297-307. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  25. Raij B van, Quaggio J A & Silva N M (1986) Extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium from soils by an ion exchange resin procedure. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 17: 547-566Google Scholar
  26. Reitz H J & Koo R C (1959) Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange in calcareous soil. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72: 12-16Google Scholar
  27. Righetti T L, Wilder K L & Cummings G A (1990) Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing orchards. In:Westerman R L (ed) Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, 3rd edition. pp 563-601. Soil Science Society of American, Madison, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Rouse R D (1968) Soil test theory and calibration for cotton, corn soybeans and costal bermudagrass. Auburn, Alabama, Agric. Exp. Station, 67p.(Bull. 375)Google Scholar
  29. Terblanche J H & Du Plessis S F (1992) Summary of workshop on leaf and soil analysis as a tool for determining fertiliser requirments of citrus. Prod. Int. Soc. Citriculture 2: 744-745Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Quaggio
    • 1
  • H. Cantarella
    • 1
  • B. van Raij
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Soil Fertility and Plant NutritionInstituto AgronômicoCampinas, SPBrazil

Personalised recommendations