Different approaches to producing transgenic grapevines based on regeneration via embryogenesis were investigated. Embryogenic callus was initiated from anther tissue of Vitis vinifera cv. Sultana and three embryogenic culture types (embryogenic callus, tissue type I; proliferating embryos, tissue type II; and a suspension) were established. The three culture types were incolucaled with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring a binary vector which contained a uidA reporter gene and either a hpt or nptII selectable marker gene or the cultures were bombarded with microprojectiles carrying a uidA/nptII binary vector. Transgenic plants were produced only from Agrobacterium transformation experiments. Transformed embryos were selected with kanamycin or hygromycin antibiotics and recovered with the highest efficiency from inoculated type I cultures. Southern analysis of genomic DNA extracted from ten transgenic plants showed that the number of T-DNA insertions in the genome ranged from 1 to at least 4. Evidence for methylation of the T-DNA at cytosine and adenine residues in transgenic plants was found by Southern analysis of DNA digested with two isoschizomer pairs of restriction endonucleases. No evidence for genotype alterations or somatic meiosis was found when DNA from 80 somatic embryos and seven plants regenerated from embryogenic culture were analysed at six sequence-tagged sites which are heterozygous in cv. Sultana. Expression of the uidA gene in in vitro grown leaves of transgenic plants was most often high and uniform but GUS staining was occasionally observed to be low and/or patchy. Transgenic plants and all plants regenerated from embryogenic culture produced red veined, lobed leaves which are uncharacteristic of the accepted ampelographic phenotype of Sultana. It is suggested that this phenotype may represent a juvenile growth stage.
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Franks, T., Gang He, D. & Thomas, M. Regeneration of transgenic shape Vitis vinifera L. Sultana plants: genotypic and phenotypic analysis. Molecular Breeding 4, 321–333 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009673619456
- Agrobacterium tumefaciens
- DNA methylation
- embryogenic culture
- sequence-tagged sites
- somatic meiosis
- transgenic plants
- Vitis vinifera