The occurrence of breast cancer in men is rare in comparison to women. Public knowledge that men can get breast cancer and of male breast self-examination are lacking. Research in the course and treatment of breast cancer in men is needed. Men generally present in more advanced stages of breast cancer than women, and have a poorer prognosis. In this article, the epidemiology, common symptoms, diagnostic methods, and current treatment of breast cancer in men are described. Gender differences in presentation and course of illness are discussed. Additionally, the psychological implications of breast cancer for male gender roles and masculine identity are explored. Directions for further investigation are given. Treatment providers are encouraged to educate themselves and their male patients on breast cancer in men and male breast examination techniques so that this disease may be identified earlier in its course and survival rates improved.
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Bunkley, D.T., Robinson, J.D., Bennett, N.E. et al. Breast Cancer in Men: Emasculation by Association?. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 7, 91–97 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009553613564
- breast cancer
- breast cancer in men
- male breast carcinoma
- breast cancer treatment
- psychological effects of cancer