It is envisioned that in the near future personal mobile robots will be assisting people in their daily lives. An essential characteristic shaping the design of personal robots is the fact that they must be accepted by human users. This paper explores the interactions between humans and mobile personal robots, by focusing on the psychological effects of robot behavior patterns during task performance. These behaviors include the personal robot approaching a person, avoiding a person while passing, and performing non-interactive tasks in an environment populated with humans. The level of comfort the robot causes human subjects is analyzed according to the effects of robot speed, robot distance, and robot body design, as these parameters are varied in order to present a variety of behaviors to human subjects. The information gained from surveys taken by 40 human subjects can be used to obtain a better understanding of what characteristics make up personal robot behaviors that are most acceptable to the human users.
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Butler, J.T., Agah, A. Psychological Effects of Behavior Patterns of a Mobile Personal Robot. Autonomous Robots 10, 185–202 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008986004181