Potency of extract contents from selected tropical chewing sticks against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus auricularis
- 140 Downloads
Two strains of enteropathogenic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus auricularis, NIAH 11484 and Staphylococcus aureus, IFO 12732) were tested in vitro for their resistance to extracts from tropical chewing stick species, namely, Garcinia mannii Heck, Masularia accuminata (G. Don) Benth, Zanthoxylum gilletii (DeWild) Waterman, Terminalia glaucescens Plauch ex Benth, Azadiracta indica A. Juss, Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill & Perr and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.). The chewing sticks are normally used for oral hygiene and this is felt to be related to their ability to attack bioagents that could invade the mouth during normal nutrition. Results from our study showed that the antibiotic properties of test chewing stick species vary and are target-microbe-specific. Of the species examined, only T. glaucescens showed appreciable broad antibiotic effect against S. aureus and S. auricularis. Intense antibiotic activity against S. aureus occurred when using a 2.0 g/l extract concentration and a 30-h incubation. T. glaucescens also showed intense activity against S. auricularis at 2.0 g/l concentration, 30-h incubation when all other extracts had lost their potency. A. indica is, however, most effective against S. aureus, showing appreciable antibiotic activity at 0.4 g/l concentration, 30-h incubation. Z. gilletii has no antibiotic activity against any of the test bacteria. The antistaphylococcus compounds in T. glaucescens and A. indica are worthy of isolation and further analyses.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Abu-Ruwaida, A.S., Banat, I.M., Haditirto, S. & Khamis, A. 1991 Nutritional requirements and growth characteristics of a bio-surfactant-producing Rhodococcus bacterium. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 53–61.Google Scholar
- Akande, J.A., Yamamoto, K. & Fujii, T. 1996 Exploring dental values of tropical chewing stick species. In Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry eds Dieters, M.J., Matheson, A.C., Hikles, D.G., Harwood, L.E. and Walker, C.M. Proc. QFRI-IUFRO Conf. Caloundra, Queensland, Australia pp. 68–69.Google Scholar
- ASTM 1989 Annual of the American Society for Testing and Materials standard, Const., Sect. 4, vol. 04.09. Wood.Google Scholar
- Atanda, O.O. & Ikenebomeh, M.J. 1991 Microbiological quality of nono. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 89–91.Google Scholar
- Baldi, F., Bralia, A., Riccobono, F. & Sabatini, G. 1991. Bioleaching of cobalt and zinc from pyrite ore in relation to calcitic gangue content. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 298–308.Google Scholar
- Blazeka, B., Suskovic, J. & Matosic, S. 1991 Antimicrobial activity of lactobacilli and streptococci. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 533–536.Google Scholar
- Ebana, R.U.B., Madunagu, B.E., Ekpe, E.D. & Otung, I.N. 1991 Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Cola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 71(5), 398–401.Google Scholar
- Lowe, J. & Soladoye, M.O. 1990 Some changes and corrections to names of Nigerian plants since publication of Flora of West Tropical Africa Ed. 2. and Nigerian Trees. Nigerian Journal of Botany 3, 1–24.Google Scholar
- Moore, W.E. & Johnson, D.B. 1967 Procedures for the chemical analysis of wood and wood products as used at the Forest Products Laboratory. Madison: USDA Forest Products Laboratory Forest Service.Google Scholar
- Paige, E.A., Clarke, A.M., Radley, R. & Zemcov, S.J.V. 1996 Douglas-fir root associated microorganisms with inhibitory activity towards fungal plant pathogens and human bacteria pathogens. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 42, 690–700.Google Scholar
- Rotimi, V.O., Laughon, B.E., Bartlett, J.G. & Mosadomi, H.A. 1988 Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against bacteroides-gingivalis and bacteroides-melaninogenicus. Antimicrobiological Agents and Chemotherapy 32(4), 598–600.Google Scholar