Advertisement

Advanced Performance Materials

, Volume 5, Issue 1–2, pp 97–115 | Cite as

Ultrasonic Characterization of Iron Powder Metallurgy Compacts during and after Compaction

  • Andrew Lerossignol Dawson
  • Jean François Bussière
Article

Abstract

Ultrasonic measurements in powder metallurgy (PM) compacts at various stages of production are presented both as a practical means of improving PM production and as a method of providing a fuller understanding of PM materials. Ultrasonic monitoring during powder compaction, a novel process instrumentation technique to follow powder densification, is reviewed. Measurements taken during the compaction of simple PM disk demonstrate that the ultrasonic velocity can be used as a measure of the in situ density. This connection arises due to the acoustic equivalence between powder during compaction and PM compacts after sintering. Ultrasonic monitoring during compaction of a two-level PM part is demonstrated to be fully capable of independently following the density in each level. The results also provide evidence of different regimes of powder flow behaviour during compaction. Ultrasonic velocity mapping of the two-level compact after sintering provides confirmation of the monitoring results. Subsequently, measurements of the ultrasonic velocity in green PM compacts are shown to be consistent with a dependence on the quality of inter-particle bonding. Finally, laser ultrasonic measurements in PM compacts are used to determine the ultrasonic attenuation. Attenuation values in a sintered compact are shown to follow a simple Rayleigh scattering dependence on frequency which yields a powder particle size consistent with the known value.

porous media powder metallurgy process instrumentation ultrasonic evaluation ultrasonic scattering 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R.M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, 2nd edition (Metal Powder Industries Federation: Princeton, NJ, 1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.C. Zenger, R. Ludwig, R. Zhang, and L. McCabe, Detecting cracks in green P/M components, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 3, 9-3–9-16 (1995).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.L. Rose, M.J. Koczak, and J.W. Raisch, Ultrasonic determination of density variations in green and sintered powder metallurgy components, Progress in Powder Metallurgy 30, 131–137 (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.R. Patterson, C.E. Bates, and W.V. Knoop, Nondestructive evaluation of P/M materials, Powder Metallurgy Conference Proceedings 37, edited by J.M. Capus and D.L. Dyke (MPIF-APMI, Princeton, NJ, 1981), vol. 37, pp. 67–79.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.C. O'Brien and W. B. James, Powder metallurgy parts, Metals Handbook 17, 9th edition (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1989), pp. 536–548.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. LeR. Dawson, S. Pelletier, and J.F. Bussiêre, Ultrasonic evaluation of iron powder during compaction, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 2, 7-303–7-313 (1996).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Yichi, H.N.G. Wadley, and S. Parthasarathi, Ultrasonic sensing of powder densification, Journal of Applied Physics 71, 1641–1648 (1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.P. Jones, G.V. Blessing, and C.R Robbins, Dry-coupled ultrasonic elasticity measurements of sintered ceramics and their green states, Materials Evaluation 44, 859–862 (1986).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.P. Panakkal, H. Willems, and W. Arnold, Nondestructive evaluation of elastic parameters of sintered iron powder compacts, Journal of Materials Science 25, 1397–1402 (1990).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.R. Leheup and J.R. Moon, Yield and fracture phenomena in powder-forged iron-0.2C and their prediction by NDT methods, Powder Metallurgy 4, 177–182 (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.J. Roth, D.B. Stang, S.M. Swickard, M.R. DeGuire, and L.E. Dolhert, Review, modeling and statistical analysis of ultrasonic velocity-pore fraction relations in polycrystalline materials, Materials Evaluation, 883–888 (1991).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.R. Patterson and K.L. Miljus, Ultrasonic evaluation of the strength of PM materials, Metal Powder Reports 39, 145–147 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Parthasarathi, T. Prucher, C.J. Yu, J. Jo, and R.J. Henry, Determination of dynamic elastic properties of powder metallurgy components, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 12, 1631–1637 (1993).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B.R. Tittman, M. Abdel-Gawad, and K. Fertig, Ultrasonic characterization of microstructure in powder metal alloys, Research in Nondestructive Evaluation 2, 119–133 (1990).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Garino, M. Mahoney, M. Readey, K. Ewsuk, J. Gieske, G. Stoker, and S. Min, Characterization techniques to validate models of density variations in pressed powder compacts, 27th International SAMPE Technical Conference, edited by R.J. Martinez, H. Arris, J.A. Emerson, and G. Pike (SAMPE International Business Office, Covina, CA, 1995), pp. 610–621.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.P. Jones and G.V. Blessing, Ultrasonic evaluation of spray-dried alumina powder during and after compaction, Nondestructive Testing of High-Performance Ceramics Conference Proceedings, edited by A. Vary and J. Snyder (American Ceramic Society, Boston, MA, 1987), pp. 148–153.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Aizawa, T. Watanabe, and J. Kihara, Nondestructive insitu-evaluation of powder compact in pressing by the ultrasonic array sensing, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 3, 9-49–9-63 (1995).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.LeR. Dawson, L. Pichè, and A. Hamel, On-line ultrasonic monitoring of iron powder during compaction, Powder Metallurgy 39, 275–280 (1996).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Kendall, Surface energy of solids from ultrasonic studies of particle assemblies, Powder Metallurgy 66, 101–104 (1991).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.M. Menon, K.F. Hens, R.M. German, and J.L. Rose, Ultrasonic sensors for powder injection moulding, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 4, 71–84 (1994).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Atomet 1001HP high purity, water-atomized iron powder, Available from Quebec Metal Powders Ltd., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Tsuru, T. Nakagawa, and T. Masuda, Double step compaction of multi-level components with the electrical drive CNC, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 2, 173–182 (1992).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Grogan, Force monitoring on powder metal compaction presses, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 3, 11–25 (1994).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.F. Unkel, Process monitoring and control of the compacting press, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials 2, 217–221 (1992).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.-P. Monchalin, Optical detection of ultrasound, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, 485–499 (1986).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.-P. Monchalin, Progress towards the application of laser-ultrasonics in industry, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 12, 495–506 (1993).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    TAPP 2.0-A Database of Thermochemical and Physical Properties available from E.S. Microware, Hamilton, OH (1993).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.C. Wang, Young's modulus of porous materials, Part 1: Theoretical derivation of modulus-porosity correlation, Journal of Materials Science 19, 801–808 (1984).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.C. Wang, Young's modulus of porous materials, Part 2: Young's modulus of porous alumina with changing pore structure, Journal of Materials Science 19, 809–814 (1984).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Dubois, M. Viens, A. Moreau, and C.K. Jen, Ultrasonic attenuation measurements at 300 MHz, Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation 15, 1439–1466 (1996).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.K. MacKenzie, The elastic constants of a solid containing spherical holes, Proceedings of the Royal Society (1950), vol. B39, pp. 2–11.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Truell, C. Elbaum, and B.B. Chick, Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics (Academic Press, New York, NY, 1969).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Z. Hashin, The elastic moduli of heterogeneous materials, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 143–150 (1962).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Sayers and R.L. Smith, The propagation of ultrasound in porous media, Ultrasonics 20, 201–205 (1982).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.W. Bert, Prediction of elastic moduli of solids with oriented porosity, Journal of Materials Science 20, 2220–2224 (1985).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.J. Roth, S.M. Kiser, S.M. Swickard, S.A. Szatmary, and D. Kerwin, Quantitative mapping of pore fraction in silicon nitride using an ultrasonic contact scan technique, Research in Nondestructive Evaluation 6, 125–168 (1995).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.J. McClements, Comparison of multiple scattering theories with experimental measurements in emulsions, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 92, 849–853 (1991).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Lerossignol Dawson
    • 1
  • Jean François Bussière
    • 1
  1. 1.Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council CanadaBouchervilleCanada

Personalised recommendations