Hypermedia Use in Group Work: Changing the Product, Process, and Strategy

Abstract

Hypermedia structures have beenintegrated with CSCW functionality to develop theDOLPHIN system, an electronic meeting roomenvironment. In this paper, a study is reportedinvestigating how the DOLPHIN environment affectsgroup work. Different aspects of group problem solvingwere examined to understand the effects of workingwith hypermedia: the group's product, cognitivefactors, and the group process. The results showedthat groups can easily work with hypermediastructures, and that these structures influence groupsto produce a different product, to use a differentstrategy, and to use a different collaborative style,namely of dividing up their labor. The experimentalresults are explained in a model which suggests theinvolvement of both procedural and semantic componentsin hypermedia use. We discuss wider implications ofhypermedia for CSCW and group work.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Anderson, J. (1983): The Architecture of Cognition.Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bennis, W. (1989): On Becoming a Leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Baecker, R. (ed.) (1993): Readings in Groupware and Computer-supported Cooperative Work. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bapat, A., J. Geißler, D. Hicks, N. Streitz and D. Tietze (1996): From Electronic whiteboards to distributed meetings: Extending the scope of DOLPHIN. Video Proceedings of the ACM Conference on CSCW (CSCW ′ 96),Boston, November, 1996.

  5. Chang, E. (1989): Protocols for Group Coordination in Participant Systems. In M.M. Taylor, F. Neel and D. G. Bouwhuis (eds.): The Structure of Multimodal Dialogue. Elsevier Science (North Holland).

    Google Scholar 

  6. Craik, F. and R. Lockhart (1972): Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 11, pp. 671–684.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Dennis, A.R., J.S. Valacich and J.F. Nunamaker (1990): An experimental investigation of the effects of group size in an electronic meeting environment. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 20, pp. 1049–1057.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Elrod, S. et al. (1992): Liveboard: a large interactive display supporting group meetings, presentations and remote collaboration. Proceedings of CHI92, Monterey, May 3-7, 1992. ACM Press, pp. 599–607.

  9. Ellis, C.A., S.J. Gibbs and G.L. Rein (1991): Groupware: Some issues and experiences. Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 39–58.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Galegher, J. (1990): Intellectual teamwork and information technology: the role of information systems in collaborative intellectual work. In J. S. Carroll (ed.): Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gick, M. and K. Holyoak (1983): Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, vol. 15, pp. 1–38.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Grønbaek, K., J. Hem, O. Madsen and L. Sloth (1994): Cooperative hypermedia systems: A Dexter-based architecture. Communications of the ACM, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 64–74.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Haake, J., C. Neuwirth and N. Streitz (1994): Coexistence and transformation of informal and formal structures: Requirements for more flexible hypermedia systems. Proceedings of ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technology (ECHT94). Edinburgh, pp. 1–12.

  14. Horton, M., P. Rogers, L. Austin, D. Brimm and M. McCormick (1991): The impact of face-to-face collaborative technology on group writing. In J. Nunamaker Jr. and R.S. Sprague Jr. (eds.): Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences,Kauai, Hawaii, Jan. 7-11, 1991. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 298–3 7.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hymes, C.M. and G.M. Olson (1992): Unblocking brainstorming through the use of a simple group editor. In J. Turner and R. Kraut, (eds.): Proceedings of CSCW92,Toronto, Oct. 31-Nov. 4, 1992. ACM Press, pp. 99–106.

  16. Ishii, H., M. Kobayashi and J. Grudin (1993): Integration of interpersonal space and shared workspace. In T. Malone and N. Streitz (eds.): ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Special issue on CSCW ,vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 349–375.

  17. Johannsen, A., J. Haake and N. Streitz (1996): Telecollaboration in Virtual Organizations: The Role of Ubiquitous Meeting Systems. GMD Arbeitsbericht No. 974.

  18. Jones, W. P. and D. T. Dumais (1986): The spatial metaphor for user interfaces: Experimental tests of reference by location versus name. ACM Trans. Office Inf. Syst., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 42–63.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kerr, N. L. (1983): Motivation losses in small groups: A social dilemma analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 45, pp. 819–828.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kraut, R. E., J. Egido and J. Galegher (1990): Patterns of contact and communication in scientific research collaboration. In J. Galegher, R.E. Kraut and C. Egido (eds.): Intellectual teamwork: The social and technological bases of cooperative work.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Landow, G. (1989): Hypertext in literary education, criticism, and scholarship. Computers and the Humanities, vol. 23, pp. 173–198.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Latane, B. and J. M Darley (1970): The Unresponsive Bystanders: Why Doesn't He Help. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Mantei, M. (1988): Capturing the Capture Lab Concepts: A case study in the design of computer-supported meeting rooms. Proceedings of the Conference on CSCW (CSCW88), Portland, September 26-29, 1988. ACM Press, pp. 257–268.

  24. Mark, G. (1992): The generation of idea proposals: an illustration in a negotiation setting. EDS Center for Advanced Research Technical Report. Cambridge, MA. Available from author.

  25. Mark, G., J. Haake and N. Streitz (1995): The Use of Hypermedia in Group Problem Solving: An Evaluation of the DOLPHIN Electronic Meeting Room Environment. In H. Marmolin, Y. Sundblad and K. Schmidt (eds.): Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on CSCW, Stockholm, Sept. 10-14. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 197–213.

  26. Mark, G., J. Haake and N. Streitz (1996): Hypermedia Structures and the Division of Labor in Meeting Room Collaboration. In M. Ackerman (ed.), Proceedings of the ACM Conference on CSCW (CSCW96), Boston, Nov. 16-20, 1996. ACM Press, pp. 170–179.

  27. Marmolin, H., Y. Sundblad and B. Pehrson (1991): An analysis of design and collaboration in a distributed environment In L. Bannon, M. Robinson, and K. Schmidt (eds.): ECSCW91, Proceedings of the Second European Conference on CSCW ,Amsterdam, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 147–162.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Mayer, R, and J. Greeno (1975): Effects of meaningfulness and organization on problem solving and computability judgements. Memory & Cognition, vol. 3, pp. 356–362.

    Google Scholar 

  29. McGrath, J. E. (1993): Time, interaction, and performance (TIP). In R. Baecker (ed.), Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufman, pp. 116–129.

    Google Scholar 

  30. McGuffin, L. and G.M. Olson (1992): ShrEdit: A Shared Electronic Workspace.Technical Report No. 45, University of Michigan, Cognitive Sciences and Machine Intelligence Lab, 1992.

  31. McKoon, G. and R. Ratcliff (1979): Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,vol. 18, pp. 463–480.

    Google Scholar 

  32. McLeod, P. (1992): An assessment of the experimental literature on electronic support of group work. Human Computer Interaction, vol. 7, pp. 257–280.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Newell, A. (1980): Reasoning, problem solving, and decision processes: The problem space as the fundamental category. In R. Nickerson (ed.): Attention and Performance VIII, Erlbaum.

  34. Nielsen, J. (1995): Multimedia and Hypertext: The Internet and Beyond. NY: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Nunamaker, J.F. et al. (1991): Electronic meeting systems to support group work. Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 40–61.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Olson, J., G. Olson, M. Storrosten and M. Carter (1993): Groupwork close up: A comparison of the group design process with and without a simple group editor. In T. Malone and N. Streitz (eds.): ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Special issue on CSCW, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 321–348.

  37. Osborn, A. F. (1957): Applied Imagination. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Owens, J., G. H. Bower and J. B. Black (1979): The "soap opera" effect in story recall. Memory and Cognition, vol. 7, pp. 185–191.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Pedersen, E., K.McCall, T. Moran and F. Halasz (1993): Tivoli: An electronic whiteboard for informal workgroup meetings, Proc. of the InterCHI93 Conference, Amsterdam, pp. 391–398.

  40. Posner, I. R. and R. M. Baecker (1992): How People Write Together. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, vol. IV. Kauai, Hawaii, January 7-10, 1992.

  41. Reder, L. M. and J. R Anderson (1980): The role of elaboration in the comprehension and retention of prose. Review of Educational Research, vol. 50, pp. 5–53.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Rein, G. L. and C. A. Ellis (1989): The Nick experiment reinterpreted: Implications for developers and evaluators of groupware. Office: Technology and People, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47–75.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Schein, E. H. (1990): Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schuler, W., J. Hannemann and N. Streitz (eds.) (1995): Designing User Interfaces for Hypermedia. Heidelberg: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Schwartz, S. (1971): Modes of representation and problem solving: Well evolved is half solved. Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 91, pp. 347–350.

    Google Scholar 

  45. SMART (1997). http://smarttech.com/prodhome.htm.

  46. Sproull, L. and S. Kiesler (1991): Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Stefik, M. et al. (1987): Beyond the chalkboard: computer support for collaboration and problem solving in meetings. Communications of the ACM, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 32–47.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Streitz, N. (1985): Subjektive Wissensrepräsentationen als Determinanten kognitiver Prozesse (Subjective knowledge representations as determinants of cognitive processes). Doctoral Dissertation. Technical University of Aachen.

  49. Streitz, N. (1994): Putting objects to work: Hypermedia as the subject matter and the medium for computer-supported cooperative work. In M. Tokoro and R. Pareschi (eds.): Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP94). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 183–193.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Streitz, N., J. Geißler, J. Haake and J. Hol (1994). DOLPHIN: Integrated meeting support across Liveboards, local and remote desktop environments. In R. Furuta and C. Neuwirth (eds.): Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW94),Chapel Hill, Oct. 22-26, 1994. ACM Press, pp. 345–358.

  51. Streitz, N., J. Haake, J. Hannemann, A. Lemke, W. Schuler, H. Schütt,M. Thüring (1992): SEPIA: A cooperative hypermedia authoring environment. Proceedings of the 4th ACM European Conference on Hypertext (ECHT92), Milan, pp. 11-22 (updated and revised version in: R. Rada (ed.), Groupware and Authoring. London: Academic Press, 1996. pp. 241–264).

    Google Scholar 

  52. Streitz, N., P. Rexroth and T. Holmer (1997): Does "roomware" matter? Investigating the role of personal and public information devices and their combination in meeting room collaboration. InW. Prinz, T. Rodden, J. Hughes and K. Schmidt (eds.): Proceedings of ECSCW97, Lancaster, Sept. 7-11, 1997. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 297–312.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Tang, J. C. (1991): Findings from observational studies of collaborative work. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies, vol. 34, pp. 143–160.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Tatar, D. G., G. Foster and D. G. Bobrow (1991): Design for conversation: lessons from Cognoter. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies, vol. 34, pp. 185–209.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Watson, R. T., G. DeSanctis and M. S. Poole (1988): Using a GDSS to Facilitate Group Consensus: Some Intended and Unintended Consequences. MIS Quarterly (12:3), September, 1988, pp. 463–478.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Whittaker, S., S. Brennan and H. Clark (1991): Coordinating activity: An analysis of interaction in CSCW. Proceedings of CHI91, New Orleans, April 27-May 2, 1991. ACM Press, pp. 361–367.

  57. Williams, K. B., S. Harkins and B. Latane (1981): Identifiability as a deterrent to social loafing: Two cheering experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 40, pp. 303–311.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Wingfield, A. and D. Byrnes (1981): The psychology of human memory. NY: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Yuker, H. E. (1955); Group atmosphere and memory. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 51, pp. 17–23.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Zigurs, I. and K. Kozar (1994): An Exploratory Study of Roles in Computer-Supported Groups. MIS Quarterly, September, 1994, pp. 277–297.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mark, G., Haake, J.M. & Steritz, N.A. Hypermedia Use in Group Work: Changing the Product, Process, and Strategy. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 6, 327–368 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008627213701

Download citation

  • Collaborative style
  • Cooperation support
  • Division of labor
  • Electronic meeting room
  • Electronic whiteboards
  • Empirical study
  • Evaluation
  • Group process
  • Hypermedia