Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 233–242 | Cite as

Diversity and distribution of the mangrove forests in Taiwan

  • Mei-Li Hsueh
  • Hsun-Hwang Lee


In a survey of 1992 to 1994, mangrove forests withfour species of true mangroves, Kandelia candel(L.) Druce, Avicennia marina(Forsk.) Vierh.,Rhizophora stylosaGriff., and Lumnitzera racemosaWilld., were found at 22locations in the west coast of Taiwan. The northernrange of their distribution was at Tanshui Estuary(Latitude 25°11′N) and the southern range atTapen Bay (22°28′N). The total area wasestimated to be 286.95 ha. There was an obvious changein species composition and a decrease in speciesnumber of true mangroves from south to north: the fourspecies dominated by A. marinain thesouth and K. candelas thesole species in the north. Air temperature associatedwith sea surface temperature and oceanic currents inwinter, but not soil property, was found to be theprimary environmental factor, affecting the diversityand distribution of true mangroves in Taiwan as wellas in the northeast region of Asia.

distribution mangroves Taiwan 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chapman, V.J. 1977. Ecosystems of the World: 1, Wet Coast Ecosystems. Elsevier Scientific Publication, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  2. Chang, L.M. 1971. Phytogeographical and ecological studies on the vegetation of salt-marsh land in western coastal area of Taiwan. Bulletin of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute No.213. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Chen, M.I. 1991. Mangrove forests required for urgent conservation measure in Taiwan. Environmental Education Quarterly 10: 71–81. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Duke, N.C. 1992. Mangrove floristics and biogeography. In: Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. (eds.), Coastal and Estuarine Studies 41: Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. pp. 63–100. American Geophysical Union Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Duke, N.C. and Bunt, J.S. 1979. The genus Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) in North-eastern Australia. Australia Journal of Botany 27: 657–678.Google Scholar
  6. Hosokawa, T., Tagawa, H. and Chapman, V.J. 1977. Mangals of Micronesia, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines and Oceania. In: Chapman, V.J. (ed.), Ecosystems of the World: 1, Wet Coast Ecosystems. pp. 271–291. Elsevier Scientific Publication, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  7. Hu, C.H. 1959. The mangrove flora from southern Taiwan. Annual Reports of Taiwan Museum 2: 77–95. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Huang, T.C. and Hsu, S.J. 1982. The problems of Taiwan's mangroves. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 15(3): 77–81. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Hutchings, P. and Saenger, P. 1987. Ecology of Mangroves. University of Queensland Press, Australia.Google Scholar
  10. Kanehira, R. 1936. Formosan Trees Review. Department of Forestry, Government Research Institute, Taihoko, Formosa. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Li, P.F. 1997. Wildlife Sanctuaries in Taiwan. Council of Agriculture, ROC Press. Taipei, Taiwan. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Lin, P. and Lu, C. 1985. The mangrove forests distributed around the coast of Hainan Island. Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science) 24(1): 116–127. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Lin, P. and Wei, X.M. 1990. Ecological notes on the mangroves of Fujian, China. In: Lin, P. (ed.), Mangrove Research Papers. pp. 51–56. Xiamen University Press, China.Google Scholar
  14. Liu, V.T. 1982a. Mangrove of the world. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 15(3): 3–8. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Liu, T.S. 1982b. The mangrove in Taiwan. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 15(3): 9–16. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Liu, C.S., Ouyang, U. and Chen, K.C. 1996. Is there no mangrove in eastern Taiwan? Distribution of Pemphis acidula in Taiwan. (Abstract). The Second Symposium of Mangrove Researches and Management in China, Sponsored by Ecology society of China, 2-5 December 1996, Chungshan University, Kwantung. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Lu, S.Y., Hsueh, M.L., Hsu, T.W. and Chen, T.Z. 1999. A taxonomical note on Rhizophora stylosa in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forestry Science. (in press)Google Scholar
  18. Maxwell, G.S., Havanond, S. and Nakamura, T. 1997. The ecogeography of Kandelia candel in Thailand, Hong Kong and Southern Islands of Japan. Bulletin of National Taiwan Normal University 32(2): 89–95.Google Scholar
  19. Nakasuga, T. 1979. Analysis of the mangrove stand. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture University Ryukyu 26: 413–519. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological properties. Second Edition. American Society of Agronomy (ASA) and Academic Press, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  21. Sasaki, S. 1912. Mangroves of Taiwan. Journal of Natural History Society of Taiwan 6: 40–50. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Sasaki, S. 1923. Disappearance of Kandelia candel from the Keelung Bay of Taiwan. Journal of Natural History Society of Taiwan 66: 37–38. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Sasaki, S. 1924. The mangrove Kandelia candel still remained in Keelung Bay. Journal of Natural History Society of Taiwan 69: 59. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Shimada, Y. 1924. A survey of Kandelia candel in Hungmao Bay. Journal of Natural History Society of Taiwan 72: 25–29. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Spalding, M., Blasco, F. and Field, C. 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems Press. Okinawa, Japan.Google Scholar
  26. Tam, F.Y., Wong, Y.S., Lu, C.Y. and Berry, R. 1997. Mapping and characterization of mangrove plant communities in Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia 352: 25–37.Google Scholar
  27. Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Tsai C.H., Chen, P.Y., Chen, C.P., Lee, M.A., Shiah, G.Y. and Lee, K.T. 1997. Fluctuation in abundance of larval anchovy and environmental conditions in coastal waters off south-western Taiwan as associated with the E1 Niño-Southern Oscillation. Fisheries Oceanography 6(4): 238–249.Google Scholar
  29. Yushun, K. 1932. The mangrove of Formosa. Botanical Magazine 46(544): 147–156.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mei-Li Hsueh
    • 1
  • Hsun-Hwang Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Habitats and Ecosystems DivisionTaiwan Endemic Species Research InstituteChichi, NantouTaiwan

Personalised recommendations