Advertisement

Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 89–93 | Cite as

β-carotene is the intermediate exported from the chloroplast during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis

  • Kay Grünewald
  • Christoph Hagen
Note

Abstract

Recent findings on the localization in Haematococcus pluvialis of anearly and a late enzyme in astaxanthin synthesis have suggested thesequential involvement of two compartments, the chloroplast (site of earlysynthesis) and the cytoplasmic lipid vesicles. Here the intermediatetransported across the chloroplast envelope into the cytoplasm is elucidatedby means of the inhibitors diphenylamine (DPA) and2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Based on the amounts of theintermediates accumulated upon inhibitor treatment and their occurrencein the lipid vesicle fractions, it is concluded that the transport takes placeafter β-ionone ring cyclization. A non-vesicle mechanism of β-iononecarotenoid transport from the chloroplast towards the cytoplasmic lipidvesicles via carotenoid binding proteins is suggested.

β-carotene CPTA cyclase Haematococcuspluvialis inhibitor lycopene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Babili S, Hartung W, Kleinig H, Beyer P (1999) CPTA modulates levels of carotenogenic proteins and their mRNAs and affects carotenoid and ABA content as well as chromoplast structure in Narcissus pseudonarcissus flowers. Plant Biol. 1: 607-612.Google Scholar
  2. Boussiba S (2000) Carotenogenesis in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: Cellular physiology and stress response. Physiol. Pl. 108: 111-117.Google Scholar
  3. Bouvier F, d'Harlingue A, Camara B, (1997) Molecular analysis of carotenoid cyclase inhibition. Arch. Biochem. Biophysics 346: 53-64.Google Scholar
  4. Grünewald K, Hagen C, Braune W (1997) Secondary carotenoid accumulation in flagellates of the green alga Haematococcus lacustris. Eur. J. Phycol. 32: 387-392.Google Scholar
  5. Grünewald K, Eckert M, Hirschberg J, Hagen C (2000) Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and upregulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). Plant Physiol. 122: 1261-1268.Google Scholar
  6. Grünewald K, Hagen C (2000) Extrusion of secondary carotenoid containing vesicles from flagellates of Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales; Chlorophyceae). J. appl. Botany 74: 141-144.Google Scholar
  7. Hagen C, Braune W, Greulich F (1993) Functional aspects of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus lacustris [Girod] Rostafinski (Volvocales) IV. Protection from photodynamic damage. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 20: 153-160.Google Scholar
  8. Hagen C, Grünewald K, Xyländer M, Rothe, E (2001) Effect of cultivation parameters on growth and pigment biosynthesis in flagellated cells of Haematococcus pluvialis. J. appl. Phycol. 13: 79-87.Google Scholar
  9. Harker M, Young AJ (1995) Inhibition of astaxanthin synthesis in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Eur. J. Phycol. 30: 179-187.Google Scholar
  10. Hirschberg J (1998) Molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis. In Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H (eds), Carotenoids. Vol. 3. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp. 149-194.Google Scholar
  11. Lorenz RT, Cysewski GR (2000) Commercial potential for Haematococcus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin. Trends Biotechnol. 18: 160-167.Google Scholar
  12. Sun Z, Cunningham FX, Gantt E (1998) Differential expression of two isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerases and enhanced carotenoid accumulation in a unicellular chlorophyte. Proc. natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 11482-11488.Google Scholar
  13. Vishnevetsky M, Ovadis M, Zuker A, Vainstein A (1999) Molecular mechanisms underlying carotenogenesis in the chromoplast: multilevel regulation of carotenoid-associated genes. Plant J. 20: 423-431.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kay Grünewald
    • 1
  • Christoph Hagen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Allgemeine BotanikFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations