Advertisement

Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 173–189 | Cite as

A mineral magnetic and scaled-chrysophyte paleolimnological study of two northeastern Pennsylvania lakes: records of fly ash deposition, land-use change, and paleorainfall variation

  • K. P. Kodama
  • J. C. Lyons
  • Peter A. Siver
  • Anne-Marie Lott
Article

Abstract

A combined mineral magnetic and scaled chrysophyte study of lake sediments from Lake Lacawac and Lake Giles in northeastern Pennsylvania was conducted to determine the effects of land-use and sediment source changes on the variation of pH, conductivity, and alkalinity inferred from biotic changes. Ten 30–40 cm long gravity cores were collected from Lake Lacawac and three from Lake Giles. Isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRMs) were given to the lake sediments in a 1.3 T magnetic field to measure magnetic mineral concentration variations. IRM acquisition experiments were conducted to identify magnetic mineralogy. The bedrock, soils and a peat bog on the shores of Lake Lacawac were also sampled for magnetic analysis to determine possible lake sediment sources. The top 10 cm of sediment collected from Lakes Lacawac and Giles was two to four times more magnetic than deeper sediment. 210Pb dating suggests that this intensity increase commenced circa 1900. SEM images of magnetic extracts from the highly magnetic sediments indicates the presence of magnetic fly ash microspheres from fossil fuel burning electric power generation plants. The similarity in magnetic coercivity in the top 8 cm lake sediments and in the peat bog supports an atmospheric source for some of the magnetic minerals in the youngest lake sediments. The highly magnetic sediments also contain an antiferromagnetic mineral in two cores closest to Lake Lacawac‘s southeastern shore. This magnetic mineral is only present deep in the soil profile and would suggest erosion and significant land-use changes in the Lacawac watershed as another cause for the high magnetic intensities (concentrations) in the top 10 cm of the lake sediments. The most significant changes in the scaled chrysophyte flora occurred immediately above the 10 cm level and were used to infer a doubling of the specific conductivity between circa 1910 and 1929. These variations also support land-use changes in the Lacawac catchment at this time. A similar shift in the scaled chrysophte flora was not observed in the top of Lake Giles, however, distinct changes were found in the deeper sections of the core coupled with a smaller peak in magnetic concentration. Fourier analysis of the 210Pb-dated lake sediment magnetics indicates the presence of a 50 year period, low amplitude variation in the Lake Lacawac, Lake Giles, and Lake Waynewood (Lott et al., 1994) magnetic concentration records. After removal of the land-use/fly ash magnetic concentration peak by Gaussian filtering, the 50 year variation correlates strongly from lake to lake even though the lakes are in different watersheds separated by up to 30 km. When this magnetic variation is compared with Gaussian-filtered rainfall variations observed in New York City and Philadelphia over the past 120–250 years there is a strong correlation suggesting that magnetic concentration variations can record regional rainfall variations with an approximately 50 year period. This result indicates that magnetics could be used to document regional variations in climatic change.

mineral magnetism scaled chrysophytes Pocono Mountains land-use changes paleorainfall variation atmospheric fly-ashdeposition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appleby, P. G. & F. Oldfield, 1983. The assessment of 210Pb data from sites with varying sediment accumulation rates. Hydrobiologia. 103: 29–35.Google Scholar
  2. Bair, F. E., Ed. 1992. The Weather Almanac. Gale Research Inc. Detroit: 666.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, W. R., 1992. Historical climate records from the northeastern United States, 1640 to 1900 in Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D., eds., Climate Since AD 1500, Routledge, London: 74–91.Google Scholar
  4. Batterbee, R. W., 1986, Diatom analysis. In B. E. Berglund, Handbook of Holocene palaeoecology and palaeohydrology, Wiley and Sons, 527–570.Google Scholar
  5. Birks, H. J. B., J. M. Line, S. Juggins, A. C. Stevenson & C. J. F. ter Braak, 1990. Diatoms and pH reconstruction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 327: 263–277.Google Scholar
  6. Bloemendal, J., B. Lamb & J. King, 1988. Paleoenvironmental implications of rockmagnetic properties of late Quaternary sediment cores from the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Paleoceanography. 3: 61–87.Google Scholar
  7. Bloemendal, J. & P. d. Menocal, 1989. Evidence for a change in the periodicity of tropical climate cycles at 2.4 Myr from whole-core susceptibility measurements. Nature. 342: 897–900.Google Scholar
  8. Charles, D. F. & J. P. Smol, 1988. New methods for using diatoms and chrysophytes to reconstruct past lakewater pH. Limnology and Oceanography. 33: 1451–1462.Google Scholar
  9. Cook, E. R., D. W. Stahle & M. K. Cleaveland, 1992, Dendroclimatic evidence from eastern North America, in Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D., eds., Climate Since A.D. 1500, Routledge, London: 331–348.Google Scholar
  10. Cornett, R. J., L. Chant & D. Link, 1984. Sedimentation of Pb-210 in Laurentian shield lakes. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada. 19: 97–107.Google Scholar
  11. Cumming, B. F., J. P. Smol, J. C. Kingston, D. F. Charles, H. J. H. Birks, K. E. Camburn, S. S. Dixit, A. J. Uutala & A. R. Selle, 1992. How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack region lakes (New York, USA) since preindustrial times? Can. J. Fish aquat. Sci. 49: 128–141.Google Scholar
  12. Dearing, J., 1983. Changing patterns of sediment accumulation in a small lake in Scania, southern Sweden. Hydrobiologia. 103: 59–64.Google Scholar
  13. Dearing, J. A. & R. J. Flower, 1982. The magnetic susceptibility of sedimenting material trapped in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland and its erosional significance. Limnology and Oceanography. 17: 969–975.Google Scholar
  14. Dixit, A. S.& S. S. Dixit, 1989. Surface-sediment chrysophytes from 35 Quebec lakes and their usefulness in reconstructing lake–water pH. Canadian Journal of Botany. 67: 2071–2076.Google Scholar
  15. Dixit, S. S., A. S. Dixit & R. D. Evans, 1988. Scaled chrysophytes (Chrysophyceae) as indicators of pH in Sudbury, Ontario lakes. Canadian Journal of Botany. 45: 162–178.Google Scholar
  16. Glew, J. R., 1989. A portable extruding device for close interval sectioning of unconsolidated core samples. J. Paleo. 2: 31–36.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, F. R., J. Bloemendal, J. W. King, M. A. Arthur & A. E. Aksu, 1989. Middle to late Quaternary sediment fluxes in the Labrador Sea, ODP Leg 105, Site 646: A synthesis of rock-magnetic, oxygen-isotopic, carbonate and planktonic foramniferal data. in Srivastava, S. P., M. Arthur, and B. Clement et al., eds., Proc. ODP. Sci. Results, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX: 837–841.Google Scholar
  18. Hansen, L. D., D. Silberman & G. L. Fisher, 1981. Crystalline components of stack-collected, size fractionated coal fly ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 1057–1062.Google Scholar
  19. Kent, D. V., 1982. Apparent correlation of paleomagnetic intensity and climatic records in deep-sea sediments. Nature. 299: 538.Google Scholar
  20. King, J., S. K. Banerjee, J. Marvin & O. Ozdemir, 1982. A comparison of different magnetic methods for determining the relative grain size of magnetite in natural sediments: some results from lake sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 59: 404–419.Google Scholar
  21. King, J. W. & J. E. T. Channel, 1991. Sedimentary magnetism, environmental magnetism, and magnetostratigraphy. Reviews of Geo-physics, Supplement. U.S. National Report to the IUGG 1987–1990: 358–370.Google Scholar
  22. Landsberg, H. E., C. S. Yu & L. Huang, 1968. Preliminary reconstruction of a long time series of climatic data for the eastern United States. Technological Note B14–571, Institute for Fluid Dynamics and Applied Mathematics, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  23. Lauf, R. J., L. A. Harris & S. S. Rawiston, 1982. Pyrite framboids as the source of magnetite spheres in fly ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16: 218–220.Google Scholar
  24. Lott, A. M., P. A. Siver, L. J. Marsicano, K. P. Kodama & R. E. Moeller, 1994. The paleolimnology of a small waterbody i the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: Reconstructing 19th–20th century specific conductivity trends in relation to changing land use. J. Paleolimnology. 12: 75–86.Google Scholar
  25. Marsicano, L. J. & P. A. Siver, 1993.Apaleolimnological assessment of lake acidification in five Connecticut lakes. J. Paleolimnology. 9: 209–221.Google Scholar
  26. Mead, G. A., L. Tauxe & J. L. LaBrecque, 1986. Oligocene paleoceanography of the South Atlantic: Paleoclimatic implications of sediment accumulation rates and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Paleoceanography. 1: 273–284.Google Scholar
  27. Oldfield, F., 1990. Magnetic measurements of recent sediments from Big Moose Lake, Adirondak Mountains, N.Y., USA. J. Paleolimnology. 4: 93–101.Google Scholar
  28. Oldfield, F., A. Brown & R. Thompson, 1979. The effect of microtopography and vegetation on the catchment of airborne particles measured by remanent magnetism. Quaternary Research. 12: 326–332.Google Scholar
  29. Ondov, J. M., R. C. Ragaini & A. H. Biermann, 1979. Emission and particle-size distribution ofminor and trace elements at two western coal-fired power plants equipped with cold-side electrostatic precipitators. Environ. Sci. Technol. 13: 946–953.Google Scholar
  30. Paillard, D. & L. Labeyrie, 1993. A ‘user-friendly’ Macintosh software for rapid correlations of paleoclimatic signals and treatments. Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, PNEDC/INSU.Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, S. G., 1986. The late Pleistocene paleoclimatic record of North Atlantic deepsea sediments revealed by mineral-magnetic measurements. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 42: 22–47.Google Scholar
  32. Siver, P. A., 1993. Inferring the specific conductivity of lake water with scaled chrysophytes. Limnology and Oceanography. 38: 1480–1492.Google Scholar
  33. Siver, P. A., 1995. The distribution of chrysophytes along environmental gradients: Their use as biological indicators. in Sandgren, C. D., J. P. Smol & J. Kristiansen, eds. Chrysophyte Algae: Ecology, phylogeny and development. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 232–269.Google Scholar
  34. Siver, P. A. & J. S. Hamer, 1990. The use of extant populations of scaled chrysophytes for the inference of lakewater pH. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 47: 1339–1347.Google Scholar
  35. Thompson, R., 1973. Paleolimnology and paleomagnetism. Nature. 242: 182–184.Google Scholar
  36. Thompson, R.& F. Oldfield, 1986. EnvironmentalMagnetism. Allen & Unwin, London, 227 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Thomson, D. J., 1982. Spectrum estimation and harmonic analysis. Proc. IEEE. 70: 1055–1096.Google Scholar
  38. World Weather Records, 1941–1950, 1959. US Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.: 1361 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Yiou, P., C. Genthon, M. Ghil, J. Jouzel, H. L. Treut, J. M. Barnola, C. Lorius & Y. N. Korotkevitch, 1991. High-frequency paleovariability in climate and CO2 levels from Vostok ice core records. J. Geophys. Res. 96: 20365–20378.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. P. Kodama
    • 1
  • J. C. Lyons
    • 1
  • Peter A. Siver
    • 2
  • Anne-Marie Lott
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.Botany DepartmentConnecticut CollegeNew LondonUSA

Personalised recommendations