The objective of this research is to develop and evaluate effective, computationally efficient procedures for scheduling jobs in a large-scale manufacturing system involving, for example, over 1000 jobs and over 100 machines. The main performance measure is maximum lateness; and a useful lower bound on maximum lateness is derived from a relaxed scheduling problem in which preemption of jobs is based on the latest finish time of each job at each machine. To construct a production schedule that minimizes maximum lateness, an iterative simulation-based scheduling algorithm operates as follows: (a) job queuing times observed at each machine in the previous simulation iteration are used to compute a refined estimate of the effective due date (slack) for each job at each machine; and (b) in the current simulation iteration, jobs are dispatched at each machine in order of increasing slack. Iterations of the scheduling algorithm terminate when the lower bound on maximum lateness is achieved or the iteration limit is reached. This scheduling algorithm is implemented in Virtual Factory, a Windows-based software package. The performance of Virtual Factory is demonstrated in a suite of randomly generated test problems as well as in a large furniture manufacturing facility. To further reduce maximum lateness, a second scheduling algorithm also incorporates a tabu search procedure that identifies process plans with alternative operations and routings for jobs. This enhancement yields improved schedules that minimize manufacturing costs while satisfying job due dates. An extensive experimental performance evaluation indicates that in a broad range of industrial settings, the second scheduling algorithm can rapidly identify optimal or nearly optimal schedules.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alting, L. and Zhang, H.-C. (1989) Computer aided process planning: the state-of-the-art survey. International Journal of Production Research, 27 (4), 553–585.
Chang, T.C. and Wysk, R.A. (1985) An Introduction to ComputerAided Process Planning Systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Liao, T.W., Coates, E.R., Aghazadeh, F., Mann, L. and Guha, N. (1994) Modification of capp systems for capp/scheduling integration. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 26 (3), 451–463.
Weintraub, A. and Cormier, D. (1997) A testbed for scheduling with alternative process plans. Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, 3 (3), 231–238.
Zhang, H.-C. (1993) Ippm - a prototype to integrate process planning and job shop scheduling functions. Annals of C.I.R.P., 42 (1), 513–518.
Zhang, H.-C. and Huang, S.H. (1994) A fuzzy approach to process plan selection. International Journal of Production Research, 32 (6), 1265–1279.
El Maraghy, H.A. (1993) Evolution and future perspectives of capp. Annals of C.I.R.P., 42 (2), 739.
Maturana, S., Balasubramanian, S. and Norrie, D.H. (1996) A multi-agent approach to integrated planning and scheduling, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, pp. 272–279.
Wang, H.-P. and Li, J.-K. (1991) Computer-Aided Process Planning, Elsevier, New York.
Hodgson, T.J., Cormier, D., Weintraub, A.J. and Zozom, A. (1998) Satisfying due-dates in large job shops. Management Science, 44 (10), 1442–1446.
Carlier, J. and Pinson, E. (1989) An algorithm for solving the jobshop problem. Management Science, 35 (2), 164–176.
Baker, K.R. and Su, Z.-S. (1974) Sequencing with due dates and early start times to minimize maximum tardiness. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 21, 171–176.
Morton, T.E. and Pentico, D.W. (1993) Heuristic Scheduling Systems: With Applications to Production Systems and Project Management, Wiley, New York.
Blackstone, J.H., Phillips, D.T. and Hogg, G.L. (1982) A state-ofthe-art survey of dispatching rules for manufacturing job shop operations. International Journal of Production Research, 20 (1), 27–45.
Carrol, D.C. (1965) Heuristic sequencing of single and multiple component jobs. Ph.D. thesis Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Vepsalainen, A.P.J. and Morton, T.E. (1988) Improving local priority rules with global lead-time estimates: a simulation study. Journal of Manufacturing and Operation Management, 1 (1), 102–118.
Demirkol, E., Mehta, S. and Uzsoy, R. (1996) Benchmarks for shop scheduling problems. Research Memorandum 96–4, School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Palmer, G.J. (1994) An integrated approach to manufacturing planning. Ph.D. thesis, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
Glover, F., Kelley, J.P. and Laguna, M. (1996) New advances and applications of combining simulation and optimization. Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, in Charnes, J.M., Morrice, D.J., Brunner, D.T. and Swain, J.J. (eds), pp. 144–152.
Hou, T.-H. and Wang, H.-P. (1991) Integration of a capp system and an fms. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 20 (2), 231–242.
Hon, K.K.B. (1986) Stabilized sequence planning system, in Proceedings of the First International Conference on ComputerAided Production Engineering, pp. 175–177.
Khoshnevis, B. and Chen, Q. (1989) Integration of process planning and scheduling functions, in Proceedings of the IIE Integrated Systems Conference, pp. 415–420.
Tonsho., H.K., Bechendorf, U. and Schaele, M. (1987) Some approaches to represent the interdependence of process planning and process control, in Proceedings of the C.I.R.P. International Seminar on Manaufacturing Systems, pp. 257–271.
Lee, C.-Y., Piramuthu, S. and Tsai, Y.K. (1997) Job shop scheduling with a genetic algorithm and machine learning. International Journal of Production Research, 35 (4), 1171–1191.
Stein, C. (1945) A two-sample test for a linear hypothesis whose power is independent of the variance. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 16 (1), 243–258.
Bowker, A.H. and Lieberman, G.J. (1972) Engineering Statistics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
About this article
Cite this article
Weintraub, A., Cormier, D., Hodgson, T. et al. Scheduling with alternatives: a link between process planning and scheduling. IIE Transactions 31, 1093–1102 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007683710427