Of the four types of biological control, (1) natural, (2) conservation, (3) augmentation, and (4) importation), ethical concerns have been raised almost exclusively about only one type: importation. These concerns rest largely on fears of extinction of animal species. Importation biological control is a cost-effective alternative to chemical control for basic food crops of resource-poor farmers. Regarding the other types of biological control, natural biological control is not consciously manipulated by humans. Augmentation has some technical concerns, but is generally an environmentally-sound, viable alternative to chemicals and offers local employment. Conservation can help empower farmers to preserve native species, while saving labor and money and reducing chemical insecticides.
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Bentley, J.W., O'Neil, R.J. On the ethics of biological control of insect pests. Agriculture and Human Values 14, 283–289 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007477300339
- Biological control
- Ethical issues
- Environmental policy