, Volume 148, Issue 2, pp 79–82 | Cite as

Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis

  • Depo Yang
  • Laura Michel
  • Jean-Pierre Chaumont
  • Joëlle Millet-Clerc


Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid, well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics, has been tested in vitro as an antifungal against dermatophytes. Its antifungal activity has been compared to ciclopiroxolamine and sulconazole, commonly used in onychomycosis treatment and chosen because of their very different chemical structures. So, a new model has been tested, utilizing sheep hoof plates in order to simulate human nails, which are almost unobtainable for in vitro tests. Three protocols were utilized: pre-treatment. simultaneous treatment and post-treatment. Among these, the post-treatment method was the best to simulate antifungal therapy. as it permitted testing and comparing the efficiency of different antifungal drugs.

Antifungal caryophyllene oxide onychomycosis model sheep hoof plate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Di Silverio A, Brazelli V, Brandozzi G, Barbarini G, Maccabruni A, Sacchi S. Prevalence of dermatophytes and yeast (Candida spp., Malassezia furfur) in HIV patients. A study of former drug addicts. Mycopathologia 1991; 114: 103–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    André J, Achten G. Onychomychosis. Int J Dermatol 1987; 26: 481–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Evans EGV. Nail dermatophytes: the nature and scale of the problem. J Dermatol Treat 1990; 1 (Suppl. 2): 47–48.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Midgley G, Moore MK, Cook JC, Pharn QG. Mycology of disorders. J Amer Acad Dermatol 1994; 3 (part 2): 68–74.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marshall RC, Orwin DFG, Gillespie JM, Structure and biochemistry of mammalian hard keratin. Electron Microsc Rev 1991; 4: 847–893.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Achten G, Parent D. The normal and pathologic nail. A review. Int J Dermatol 1983; 10: 556–565.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hemidy PY, Makki S, Muret P, Chaumont JP, Millet J. The use of sheep hoof plates for substituting human nails in transungual absorption studies. J Appl Cosmetol 1994; 12: 73–84.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malecky JC, McClausland JP. In vitro penetration and absorption of chemicals into the ovine hoof. Res Veterin Sci 1982; 33:192–197.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Connoly JD, Hill RA. Dictionary of terpenoids. Vol I: monoand sesquiterpenoids, pp. 1–654. Vol II: di and higher terpenoids, pp. 655–1460. Chapman and Hall, 1991, London. UK.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Food Drug Administration. Washington, DC, USA. Rules and Regulations: title 21 - Food and drugs, food additives, synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants. Fed Regist (17May) 1973: 95(38): 12913–12914.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Opdycke DLJ, Letizia C. Monographs on fragrance raw materials, Caryophyllene oxide. Food Chem Toxicol 1983; 21(5): 661–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benfields P, Clissold SP. Sulconazole: a review of its antimicrobial activity and therapeutic use in superficial dermatomycosis. Drugs Auckland 1988: 35:143–153.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ceshin-Roques CG, Hanel H, Pruja-Bougaret SM, Luc J, Vandermander J, Michel G. Ciclopirox nail lacquer 8%: in vivo penetration into and through nails and in vitro effect on pig skin. Skin Pharmacol 1991; 4: 89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen PR, Richard KS. Topical and surgical treatment of onychomycosis. J Amer Acad Dermatol 1994; 3 (part 2): 68–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Depo Yang
    • 1
  • Laura Michel
    • 1
  • Jean-Pierre Chaumont
    • 2
  • Joëlle Millet-Clerc
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Pharmacic GaléniqueFaculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Place Saint-JacquesBesançon CedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Botanique et CryptogamieFaculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Place Saint-JacquesBesançon CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations