Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 75–99 | Cite as

Effects of the Child Development Project on Students' Drug Use and Other Problem Behaviors

  • Victor Battistich
  • Eric Schaps
  • Marilyn Watson
  • Daniel Solomon
  • Catherine Lewis
Article

Abstract

The Child Development Project is a comprehensive school reform program that helps elementary schools to become caring communities of learners—environments characterized by supportive interpersonal relationships, shared goals, responsiveness to students' developmental and sociocultural needs, and an emphasis on prosocial values of personal responsibility, concern for others, and fairness, as well as a commitment to learning. The program includes classroom, schoolwide, and family involvement activities that, working synergistically, are expected to foster students' positive development and resilience to risk when confronted with stressful life events and circumstances. Following baseline assessments, the program was introduced in schools from six school districts across the U.S. over a period of three years. Similar schools in these same districts served as a comparison group. Evaluation findings indicated that when the program was implemented widely throughout a school, there were significant reductions in students' use of drugs and involvement in other problem behaviors.

substance abuse juvenile delinquency prevention school context social support 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albee, G. W. (1996). Revolutions and counterrevolutions in prevention. American Psychologist, 51, 1130-1133.Google Scholar
  2. Bassiri, B. (1988, April). Large and small sample properties of maximum likelihood estimates for the hierarchical linear model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  3. Battistich, V. (1996, September). Some reflections on current issues and future directions in prevention research. Paper presented at the annual National Prevention Network Prevention Research Conference, Tucson, AZ.Google Scholar
  4. Battistich, V., & Hom, A. (1997). The relationship between students' sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 87 (12), 1997-2001.Google Scholar
  5. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Solomon, D., & Watson, M. (1991a). The role of the school in prosocial development. In H. E. Fitzgerald, B. M. Lester, & M. W. Yogman (Eds.), Theory and research in behavioral pediatrics (Vol. 5,). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  6. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., & Solomon, D. (1996). Prevention effects of the Child Development Project: Early findings from an ongoing multi-site demonstration trial. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11 (1), 12-35.Google Scholar
  7. Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Kim, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1995). Schools as communities, poverty levels of student populations, and students' attitudes, motives, and performance: A multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 32 (3), 627-658.Google Scholar
  8. Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist, 32 (3), 137-151.Google Scholar
  9. Battistich, V., Watson, M., Solomon, D., Schaps, E., & Solomon, J. (1991b). The Child Development Project: A comprehensive program for the development of prosocial character. In W.M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development. Vol. 3. Application. (pp. 1-34). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.Google Scholar
  11. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 47-53.Google Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531.Google Scholar
  14. Brook, J. S., Nomura, C., & Cohen, P. (1989). A network of influences on adolescent drug involvement: Neighborhood, school, peer, and family. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 113, 125-143.Google Scholar
  15. Bryk, A. S. (1988). Musings on the moral life of schools. American Journal of Education, 96, 256-290.Google Scholar
  16. Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children's development. Psychiatry, 56, 96-118.Google Scholar
  17. Clement, P.W. (1976). A formula for computing inter-observer agreement. Psychological Reports, 39, 257-258.Google Scholar
  18. Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S. G., Hawkins, J. D., Asarnow, J. R., Markman, H. J., Ramey, S. L., Shure, M. B., & Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, 1013-1022.Google Scholar
  19. Coleman, J., & Hoffer, T. (1987). Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  20. Cooley, W. W., & Lohnes, P. R. (1976). Evaluation research in education: Theory, principles, and practice. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  21. Cowen, E. L. (1985). Person centered approaches to primary prevention in mental health: Situationfocused and competence enhancement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 31-48.Google Scholar
  22. Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22 (2), 149-179.Google Scholar
  23. Cowen, E. L. (1996). The ontogenesis of primary prevention: Lengthy strides and stubbed toes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 235-249.Google Scholar
  24. Cowen, E. L. (1997). On the semantics and operations of primary prevention and wellness enhancement: Or, will the real primary prevention please stand up? American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 245-255.Google Scholar
  25. Cuban, L. (1992). Reforming again, again, and again. Educational Researcher, 19 (1), 341-344.Google Scholar
  26. Dalton, J., & Watson, M. (1997). Among friends: Classrooms where caring and learning prevail. Oakland, CA: Developmental Studies Center.Google Scholar
  27. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  28. Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults' orientation toward control versus autonomy with children: Reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 642-650.Google Scholar
  29. Developmental Studies Center. (1994). At home in our schools: A guide to schoolwide activities that build community. Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  30. Developmental Studies Center. (1996a). That's my buddy: Friendship and learning across the grades. Oakland, CA: Developmental Studies Center.Google Scholar
  31. Developmental Studies Center. (1996b). Ways we want our class to be: Class meetings that build commitment to kindness and learning. Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  32. Developmental Studies Center. (1997). Blueprints for a collaborative classroom. Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  33. Developmental Studies Center. (1998a). The Child Development Project: Summary of the project and findings from three evaluation studies. Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  34. Developmental Studies Center. (1998b). Reading for real (program manual, rev.). Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  35. Developmental Studies Center. (1998c). Reading, thinking, caring (program manual, rev.). Oakland, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  36. Elias, M. J. (1995). Primary prevention as health and social competence promotion. Journal of Primary Prevention, 16, 5-24.Google Scholar
  37. Ellickson, P. L., & Bell, R. M. (1990). Drug prevention in junior high: A multi-site longitudinal test. Science, 247, 1299-1305.Google Scholar
  38. Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: Falmer.Google Scholar
  39. Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). A study of stress and competence in children: A building block of developmental psychology. Child Development, 55, 97-111.Google Scholar
  40. Hansen, W. B. (1992). School-based substance abuse prevention: A review of the state of the art in curriculum. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 7, 403-430.Google Scholar
  41. Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (1990). Broadening the vision of education: Schools as health promoting environments. Journal of School Health, 60, 178-181.Google Scholar
  42. Hawkins, J. D., & Weis, J. G. (1985). The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73-97.Google Scholar
  43. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of Claifornia Press.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
  45. Johnson, D.W., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R. T., Nelson, D., & Skon, L. (1981). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 47-62.Google Scholar
  46. Kendzior, S., & Dasho, S. (1996, April). A model for deep, long-term change in teachers' beliefs and practices. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  47. Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for character. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  48. Masten, A. S., Garmezy, N., Tellegen, A., Pelligrini, D. S., Larken, K., & Larsen, A. (1988). Competence and stress in school children: The moderating influence of individual and family qualities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29, 745-764.Google Scholar
  49. Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  50. O'Connor, T. G., & Rutter, M. (1996). Risk mechanisms in development: Some conceptual and methodological considerations. Developmental Psychology, 32, 787-795.Google Scholar
  51. Pentz, M., MacKinnon, D., Dwyer, J., Wang, E., Hansen, W., Flay, B., Phil, D., & Johnson, C. (1989). Longitudinal effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project on regular and experimental smoking in adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 18, 304-321.Google Scholar
  52. Petersen, A. (1993, Fall-Winter). Developmental processes: Unraveling context effects on developmental paths through life. Developmental Psychology Newsletter.Google Scholar
  53. Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  54. Reiss, D., & Price, R. H. (1996). National research agenda for prevention research: The National Institute of Mental Health Report. American Psychologist, 51, 1109-1115.Google Scholar
  55. Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. H., & Udry, J. R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823-832.Google Scholar
  56. Roberts, W., Hom, A., & Battistich, V. (1995, April). Assessing students' and teachers' sense of the school as a caring community. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  57. Rutter, M. (1985). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316-331.Google Scholar
  58. Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (1990). Transactional regulation and early intervention. In S. H. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (pp. 119-149). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Schaps, E., & Battistich, V. (1991). Promoting health development through school-based prevention: New approaches. In E. Goplerude (Ed.), Preventing adolescent drug use: From theory to practice, OSAP Prevention Monograph No. 8 (pp. 127-181). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  60. Sharan, S. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory and research. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  61. Slavin, R. E. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  62. Snijders, T. A., & Bosker, R. J. (1993). Standard errors and sampling sizes for two-level research. Journal of Educational Statistics, 18, 237-261.Google Scholar
  63. Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Kim, D., & Watson, M. (1997). Classroom practices associated with students' sense of community. Social Psychology of Education, 2 (1), 1-33.Google Scholar
  64. Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Watson, M., Schaps, E., & Lewis, C. (in press). A six-district study of educational change: Direct and mediated effects of the Child Development Project. Social Psychology of Education.Google Scholar
  65. Solomon, D., & Kendall, A. J. (1979). Children in classrooms: An investigation of person-environment interaction. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  66. Solomon, D., Watson, M., Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Delucchi, K. (1992). Creating a caring community: Educational practices that promote children's prosocial development. In F. K. Oser, A. Dick, & J.-L. Patry (Eds.), Effective and responsible teaching: The new synthesis (pp. 383-396). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  67. Solomon, D., Watson, M., Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Delucchi, K. (1996). Creating classrooms that students experience as communities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24 (6), 719-748.Google Scholar
  68. Solomon, D., Watson, M., Delucchi, K., Schaps, E., & Battistich, V. (1988). Enhancing children's prosocial behavior in the classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 25 (3), 527-554.Google Scholar
  69. Tobler, N. S., & Stratton, H. H. (1997). Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 18, 71-128.Google Scholar
  70. Tolan, P. H., & Guerra, N. G. (1994). Prevention of delinquency: Current status and issues. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 3 (4), 251-273.Google Scholar
  71. Tolan, P. H., Guerra, N. G., & Kendall, P. C. (1995). A developmental-ecological perspective on antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Toward a unified risk and intervention framework. Special Section: Prediction and prevention of child and adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63 (4), 579-584.Google Scholar
  72. Vigotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Watson, M. (1996, April). Giving content to restructuring: A social, ethical and intellectual agenda for elementary education. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  74. Watson, M., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (1997). Enhancing students' social and ethical development in schools:Anintervention program and its effects. International Journal of Educational Research, 27, 571-586.Google Scholar
  75. Watson, M., Kendzior, S., Dasho, S., Rutherford, S., & Solomon, D. (1998). A social constructivist approach to cooperative learning and staff development: Ideas from the Child Development Project. In C. M. Brody & N. Davidson (Eds.), Professional development for cooperative learning: Issues and approaches. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  76. Watson, M., Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Solomon, J. (1989). The Child Development Project: Combining traditional and developmental approaches to values education. In L. Nucci (Ed.), Moral development and character education: A dialogue (pp. 51-92). Berkeley: McCutchan.Google Scholar
  77. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1989). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: Adams-Bannister-Cox.Google Scholar
  78. Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115 (1), 28-54.Google Scholar
  79. Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention. A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47 (8), 997-1006.Google Scholar
  80. Zimmerman, M. A., & Arunkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency research: Implications for schools and policy. Social Policy Report, Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. VIII, No. 4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Battistich
    • 1
  • Eric Schaps
    • 2
  • Marilyn Watson
    • 2
  • Daniel Solomon
    • 2
  • Catherine Lewis
    • 2
  1. 1.Developmental Studies CenterOakland
  2. 2.Developmental Studies CenterOakland

Personalised recommendations