Adaptiveness of sex ratio control by the solitary parasitoid wasp Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in response to host size was studied, by examining whether differential effects of host size on the fitness of resulting wasps are to be found between males and females. The offspring sex ratio (male ratio) decreased with increasing host size. Larger hosts yielded larger wasps. Male larvae were less efficient in consuming larger hosts than female larvae. No significant interaction in development time was found between parasitoid sex and host size. Larger female wasps lived longer than smaller females, while longevity of male wasps did not increase with increasing wasp size. Smaller males were able to mate either with small or with large females, while larger males failed to mate with small females. Larger female wasps had a greater number of ovarioles and mature eggs at any one time than smaller females, although the number of eggs produced per host-feeding was not influenced by female wasps. Thus, the differential effect of host size on the fitness of males and females exists in I. naranyae. The basic assumption of the host-size model was therefore satisfied, demonstrating that sex ratio control by I. naranyae in response to host size is adaptive.
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Ueno, T. Adaptiveness of sex ratio control by the pupal parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in response to host size. Evolutionary Ecology 12, 643–654 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006577314205
- host-size model
- mating success
- sex allocation
- small male advantage