Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from litchi protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspensions
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High yields of protoplasts were isolated from litchi embryogenic suspensions, which were maintained by alternative culture in liquid and on solid media containing silver thiosulfate. Protoplasts in liquid culture and agarose beads were unable to divide sustainedly, whereas embedding of protoplasts in Ca-alginate supported cell division to microcalli and the direct formation of somatic embryos from protoplasts. Nurse cells of litchi further enhanced the culture efficiency when protoplasts were cultured in Ca-alginate beads. White non-hyperhydric somatic embryos were developed from protoplast-derived microcalli or proembryos, and 33.1% of white somatic embryos regenerated into plantlets.
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