Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 199–217 | Cite as

The life-cycle of Echinostoma friedi n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Spain and a discussion on the relationships within the `revolutum' group based on cercarial chaetotaxy

  • R. Toledo
  • C. Muñoz-Antolí
  • J.G. Esteban


The morphology of the different stages and life-cycle of Echinostoma friedi n. sp. are described and figured. The freshwater snail Lymnaea peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) serves as the natural and experimental first intermediate host and L. corvus and Gyraulus chinensis (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) as experimental first intermediate hosts. These, and Physella acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), also serve as second intermediate hosts. Adult worms, possessing 37 collar spines, were obtained from naturally infected Rattus norvegicus and experimentally from albino rats, golden hamsters and chickens. Mice were not suitable experimental definitive hosts. E. friedi differs from the most closely related species in the `revolutum' group mainly in terms of several morphological and biological features of the life-cycle stages and in its cercarial chaetotaxy. The chaetotaxy patterns of the species of the `revolutum' group are analyzed and the results show that a taxonomic comparison of these species may be carried out on the basis of the number of sensilla in the clusters CIII V1, CIII V2 (or CIII V1 + CIII V2), CIV DL and UVb. These clusters appear adequate to establish taxonomic relationships between different species within the `revolutum' group.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bayssade-Dufour, C. (1979) L'appareil sensoriel des cercaires et la systemátique des trématodes digénétiques. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série A, Zoologie, 113, 1–81.Google Scholar
  2. Beaver, P.C. (1937) Experimental studies on Echinostoma revolutum (Frölich) a fluke from birds andmammals. Illinois Biological Monographs, 15, 1–96.Google Scholar
  3. Busta, J., Nasincova, V. & Kanev, I. (1987) Scanning electron microscopy of the cirrus surface of seven trematode species. In: Abstracts of the Fifth National Conference of Parasitology, Varna, Bulgaria, p. 117.Google Scholar
  4. Christensen, N.Ø., Fried, B. & Kanev, Y. (1990) Taxonomy of 37-collar spined Echinostoma (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in experimental rodent hosts. Angewandte Parasitologie, 31, 127–130.Google Scholar
  5. Combes, C., Bayssade-Dufour, C. & Cassone, J. (1976) Sur l'imprégnation et le montage des cercaires pour l'étude chétotaxique. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 51, 399–400.Google Scholar
  6. Dietz, E. (1909) Die Echinostomatiden der Vogel. Zoologische Anzeiger, 34, 180–192.Google Scholar
  7. Dietz, E. (1910) Die Echinostomatiden der Vogel. Zoologische Jahrbucher, 12, 265–512.Google Scholar
  8. Dimitrov, V. & Kanev, I. (1992) Chaetotaxy of the cercaria of Echinostoma jurini (Skvortsov, 1924) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Khelmintologiya, 32, 11–18.Google Scholar
  9. Dimitrov, V., Kanev, I., Busta, J., Le, N.T. & Ngo, H.Z. (1985) [Argentophilic structures of Echinostoma audyi Lie et Umathevy, 1965 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) rediae and cercariae from Czechoslovakia and Vietnam]. Khelmintologiya, 19, 34–43. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  10. Dimitrov, V., Kanev, I., Fried, B. & Radev, V. (1997) Sensillae of the cercariae of Echinostoma trivolvis (Cort, 1914) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Parasite, 2, 153–158.Google Scholar
  11. Feliu, C., Gracenea, M., Montoliu, I. & Torres, J. (1987) Sobre la presencia de Echinostoma lindoense Sandground et Bonne, 1940 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) en Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Muridae) en el Delta del Ebro (NE de la Península Ibérica. Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 47, 125–126.Google Scholar
  12. Gállego, J., Feliu, C. & Torres, J. (1984) Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 (Rodentia: Muridae) hospedador de Echinostomátidos (Trematoda) en el Delta del Ebro. In: Aspectos actuales en Biología y Medicina. Libro Homenaje al Prof. Agustín Pumarola Busquets, Server-Cuesta ed., Valladolid: pp. 367–376.Google Scholar
  13. Grabda-Kazubska, B. & Kiseliene, V. (1989) Chaetotaxy and excretory system of the cercaria of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Linstow, 1873) (Digenea, Echinostomatidae). Acta Parasitologica, 34, 325–335.Google Scholar
  14. Grabda-Kazubska, B. & Moczon, T. (1988) The nervous system of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Linstow, 1873) cercaria and adult (Digenea, Echinostomatidae). Acta Parasitologica Polonica, 33, 177–184.Google Scholar
  15. Hsu, K.C., Lie, K.J. & Basch, P.F. (1968) The life history of Echinostoma rodriguesi sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Journal of Parasitology, 54, 333–339.Google Scholar
  16. Huffman, J.E. & Fried, B. (1990) Echinostoma and echinostomiasis. Advances in Parasitology, 29, 215–269.Google Scholar
  17. Iskova, N.I. (1985) [Trematoda. Vol. 4. Echinostomata]. Fauna Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 34, 198 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Jeyarasasingam, U., Heyneman, D., Lim, H.K. & Mansour, N. (1972) Life cycle of a new echinostome from Egypt, Echinostoma liei sp. nov. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Parasitology, 65, 203–222.Google Scholar
  19. Kanev, I. (1981) [Studies on the species composition of the Echinostomatids (Trematoda) in Bulgaria. VI. Establishment of an echinostome with the features of Echinostoma barbosai Lie et Basch, 1966]. Khelmintologiya, 12, 36–47. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  20. Kanev, I. (1985) [On the morphology, biology, ecology and taxonomy of Echinostoma revolutum group (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae: Echinostoma)]. Doctoral Thesis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofiaq, 467 pp. (In Bulgarian, English summary).Google Scholar
  21. Kanev, I. (1994) Life-cycle, delimitation and redescription of Echinostoma revolutum (Frölich, 1802) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Systematic Parasitology, 28, 125–144.Google Scholar
  22. Kanev, I., Dimitrov, V., Radev, V. & Fried, B. (1995a) Redescription of Echinostoma trivolvis (Cort, 1914) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) with a discussion of its identity. Systematic Parasitology, 32, 61–70.Google Scholar
  23. Kanev, I., Fried, B., Dimitrov, V. & Radev, V. (1995b) Redescription of Echinostoma jurini (Skvortsov, 1924) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) with a discussion of its identity and characteristics. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 97B, 37–53.Google Scholar
  24. Kanev, I., Vassilev, I., Bayssade-Dufour, C., Albaret, J.L. & Cassone, J. (1987) Chétotaxie cercarienne d'Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802) et E. echinatum (Zeder, 1803) (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 62, 222–234.Google Scholar
  25. Kostadinova, A. (1995) Echinostoma echinatum (Zeder, 1803) sensu Kanev 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): a note of caution. Systematic Parasitology, 32, 23–26.Google Scholar
  26. Kostadinova, A. (1999) Cercarial chaetotaxy of Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with a review of the sensory patterns in the "revolutum" group. Systematic Parasitology, in press.Google Scholar
  27. Kostadinova, A., Gibson, D.I., Biserkov, V. & Chipev, N. (2000) Re-validation Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) on the basis of the experimental completion of its life-cycle. Systematic Parasitology, 45(2), in press.Google Scholar
  28. Lie, K.J. (1964) Studies on Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) in Malaya. VII. The life history of Echinostoma lindoense Sandgroud and Bonne, 1940. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 16, 72–81.Google Scholar
  29. Lie, K.J. (1966) Studies on Echinostomatidae in Malaya. XIII. Integumentary papillae in six species of echinostome cercariae. Journal of Parasitology, 52, 1,041–1,048.Google Scholar
  30. Lie, K.J. & Basch, P.F. (1966) The life history of Echinostoma barbosai sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Journal of Parasitology, 52, 1,052–1,057.Google Scholar
  31. Lie, K.J. & Basch, P.F. (1967) The life history of Echinostoma paraensei sp. n. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Journal of Parasitology, 53, 1,192–1,199.Google Scholar
  32. Morgan, J.A.T. & Blair, D. (1995) Nuclear rDNA sequence variation in the trematode genus Echinostoma: An aid to establish relationships within the 37-collar-spine group. Parasitology, 111, 609–615.Google Scholar
  33. Morgan, J.A.T. & Blair, D. (1998a) Mitochondrial ND1 gene sequences used to identify echinostoma isolates from Australia and New Zealand. International Journal for Parasitology, 28, 492–502.Google Scholar
  34. Morgan, J.A.T. & Blair, D. (1998b) Trematode and monogenean rRNA ITS2 secondary structures support a four-domain model. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47, 406–419.Google Scholar
  35. Nasincova, V. (1991) The life-cycle of Echinostoma bolschewense (Kotova, 1939) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Folia Parasitologica, 38, 143–154.Google Scholar
  36. Nassi, H. & Dupouy, J. (1988) Étude expérimentale du cycle biologique d'Echinostoma parvocirrus n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae), parasite larvaire de Biomphalaria glabrata en Guadeloupe. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 63, 103–118.Google Scholar
  37. Nezvalova, J. (1970) Prispevek k poznáni cerkarii jizni Moravy. Spisy Prirodovedecké Fakulty, Universita J.E. Purkyné v Brné, 515, 217–252.Google Scholar
  38. Richard, J. (1964) Trematodes d'oiseaux de Madagascar (Note III). Espèces de la famille Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 39, 607–620.Google Scholar
  39. Richard, J. (1971) La chétotaxie des cercaires. Valeur systématique et phylétique. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Série A, Zoologie, 67, 1–179.Google Scholar
  40. Richard, J. & Brygoo, E.R. (1978) Cycle évolutif du trématode Echinostoma caproni Richard, 1964 (Echinostomatoidea). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 53, 265–275.Google Scholar
  41. Sandground, J.H. & Bonne, C. (1940) Echinostoma lindoensis n. sp., a new parasite of man in the Celebes with an account of its life history and epidemiology. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 20, 511–535.Google Scholar
  42. Skrjabin, K.I. & Bashkirova, E.I. (1956) [Family Echinostomatidae Dietz, 1909]. Osnovy Trematodologii, 12, 51–930. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  43. Sloss, B., Meece, J., Romano, M. & Nollen, P. (1995) The genetics relationships between Echinostoma caproni, E. paraensei, and E. trivolvis as determined by electrophoresis. Journal of Helminthology, 69, 243–246.Google Scholar
  44. Sorensen, R.E., Curtis J. & Minchella, D.J. (1998) Intraspecific variation in the rDNA ITS loci of 37-collar-spined echinostomes from North America: Implications for sequence based diagnoses and phylogenetics. Journal of Parasitology, 84, 992–997.Google Scholar
  45. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Pérez, M. & Esteban, J.G. (1998a) Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain. Journal of Helminthology, 72, 79–82.Google Scholar
  46. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Sánchez, L., Bayssade-Dufour, C. & Esteban, J.G. (1998b) Cercarial chaetotaxy of Euparyphium albuferensis Esteban et al., 1997 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae), with a review of some genera of the Echinostomatinae. Systematic Parasitology, 39, 35–44.Google Scholar
  47. Vasilev, I. & Kanev, I. (1979) [Study on the species belonging of echinostomes (Trematoda) in Bulgaria. III. Determination of two species of cercariae with 37 collar spines]. Khelmintologiya, 8, 6–23. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  48. Vasilev, I. & Kanev, I. (1981) [Studies on echinostomatids (Trematoda) species composition in Bulgaria. V. On the development and ecology of Echinostoma lindoense Sandground et Bonne, 1940]. Khelmintologiya, 11, 39–50. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  49. Vasilev, I., Kanev, I., Svietlicovski, J. & Busta, J. (1982) [Establishment of an echinostome with the features of Echinostoma lindoense Sandground et Bonne, 1940 (Echinostomatidae: Trematoda) in Poland and Czechoslovakia]. Khelmintologiya, 13, 12–21. (In Bulgarian).Google Scholar
  50. Yamaguti, S. (1935) Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 5. Trematodes of birds, III. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 6, 159–182.Google Scholar
  51. Zeder, J.C.H. (1800) Erster Nachtrag zur Naturgeschichte der Eingeweidewürmer, mit Zufassen und Anmerkungen herausgegeben. Leipzig, 320 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Toledo
    • 1
  • C. Muñoz-Antolí
    • 1
  • J.G. Esteban
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de ValenciaBurjassot, ValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations