The concept of organizational justice is important to understanding and predicting organizational behavior. A significant development in the research literature has been the separation of distributive and procedural justice. While much of the research has focused on negative outcomes, this research attempted to verify the presence of both forms of justice in the context of positive outcomes. Subjects completed an instrument designed to measure their perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. The subjects also reported their satisfaction and sense of fairness with their salary increases, their belief that the procedures to award the increases had been followed, and their level of information and agreement regarding the salary program. These measures, along with size of salary increase and gender were examined to determine their impact on the subjects' perceived level of justice. The data support the existence of the two distinct forms of justice, but suggest that procedural justice may, in turn, branch out into two aspects. One category involves being informed, and a second appears to deal with acceptance of procedures. A series of relationships are then considered. Significant gender effects were non-existent.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Adams, J. S.: 1963, 'Toward an Understanding of Inequity' Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 6, 422–436.
Adams, J. S.: 1965, 'Inequity in Social Exchange' in L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2. (Academic Press, New York), pp. 267–299.
Alexander, S. and M. Ruderman: 1987, 'The Role of Procedural and Distributive Justice in Organizational Behavior' Social Justice Research 1, 177–198.
Bies, R. J. and T. R. Tyler: 1993, 'The “Litigation Mentality” in Organizations: A Test of Alternative Psychological Explanations' Organization Science 4(3), 352–366.
Brockner, J. and L. Adsit: 1986, 'The Moderating Impact of Sex on the Equity-satisfaction Relationship: A Field Study' Journal of Applied Psychology 71, 585–590.
Brockner, J., M. Konovsky, R. Cooper-Schneider, R. Folger, C. Martin and R. Bies: 1994, 'Interactive Effects of Procedural Justice and Outcome Negativity on Victims and Survivors of Job Loss' Academy of Management Journal 37, 397–409.
Cobb, A. T., K. C. Wooten and R. Folger: 1995, 'Justice in the Making: Toward Understanding the Theory and Practice of Justice in Organizational Change and Development' in Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 8 (JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich, CT), pp. 243–295.
Coch, L. and J. P. French Jr.: 1948, 'Overcoming Resistance to Change' Human Relations 7, 512–532.
Cotton, J. L., D. A. Vollrath, K. L. Froggatt, M. L. Lengnick-Hall and K. R. Jennings: 1988, 'Employee Participation: Diverse Forms and Different Outcomes' Academy of Management Review 13(1), 8–22.
Cotton, J. L., D. A. Vollrath, M. L. Lengnick-Hall and K. L. Froggatt: 1990, 'Fact: The Form of Participation Does Matter – A Rebuttal to Leana, Locke, & Schweiger' Academy of Management Review 15(1), 147–153.
Crosby, F.: 1982, Relative Deprivation and Working Women (Oxford University Press, New York).
Eckhoff, T. (1974). Justice: Its Determinants in Social Interaction, Rotterdam, Netherlands: Rotterdam University Press.
Folger, R. and M. A. Konovsky: 1989, Academy of Management Journal 32(1), 115–130.
Glew, D. J., A. M. O'Leary-Kelly, R. W. Griffin and D. D. Van Fleet: 1995, 'Participation in Organizations: A Preview of the Issues and Proposed Framework for Future Analysis' Journal of Management 21(3), 395–421.
Golding, J., A. Resnick and F. Crosby: 1983, 'Work Satisfaction as a Function of Gender and Job Status' Psychology of Women Quarterly 7, 286–290.
Greenberg, J.: 1990, 'Organizational Justice: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow' Journal of Management 16(2), 399–432.
Greenberg, J. and C. L. McCarty: 1990, 'Comparable Worth: A Matter of Justice' in G. Ferris and K. Rowland (eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 8 (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT), pp. 265–301.
Heider, F.: 1958, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (Wiley, New York).
Huseman, R. C., J. D. Hatfield and E. W. Miles: 1987, 'A New Perspective on Equity Theory: The Equity Sensitivity Construct' Academy of Management Review 12, 222–234.
Joshi, K.: 1990, 'An Investigation of Equity as a Determinant of User Information Satisfaction' Decision Sciences 21(4), 786–807.
Kahneman, D. and A. Tversky: 1979, 'Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk' Econometrica 47, 263–291.
Kahneman, D. and A. Tversky: 1984, 'Choices, Values, and Frames' American Psychologist 39, 341–345.
Konovsky, M. A. and S. D. Pugh: 1994, 'Citizenship Behavior and Social Exchange' Academy of Management Journal 37(3), 656–669.
Leana, C. R., E. A. Locke and D. M. Schweiger: 1990, 'Fact and Fiction in Analyzing Research on Participative Decision Making: A Critique of Cotton, Vollrath, Froggatt, Lengnick-Hall, & Jennings' Academy of Management Review 15(1), 137–146.
Lind, E. A. and T. Tyler: 1988, The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (Plenum, New York).
Locke, E. A. and D. M. Schweiger: 1979, 'Participation in Decision-Making: One More Look' in B. Staw (ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1 (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT), pp. 265–339.
Miles, E. W., J. D. Hatfield and R. C. Huseman: 1994, 'Equity Sensitivity and Outcome Importance' Journal of Organizational Behavior 15, 585–596.
Powell, G. N.: 1990, 'One More Time: Do Male and Female Managers Differ?' Academy of Management Executive 4(3), 68–75.
Ryan, W.: 1977, Blaming the Victim (Vintage Books, New York).
Schweiger, D. M. and C. R. Leana: 1986, 'Participation in Decision Making' in E. A. Locke (ed.), Generalizing from Laboratory to Field Settings: Findings from Research in Industrial Organization Behavior, Psychology, and Human Resource Management (Heath, Lexington, MA), pp. 147–166.
SPSS Base 8.0 Applications Guide: 1998 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago).
Trope, Y.: 1989, 'The Multiple Roles of Construct in Dispositional Judgment' in J. N. Bassil (ed.), Online Cognition in Personal Cognition (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey).
Tyler, T. R.: 1984, 'The Role of Perceived Injustice in Defendants' Evaluation of Their Courtroom Experience' Law and Society Review 18, 51–74.
Tyler, T. R.: 1989, 'The Psychology of Procedural Justice: A Test of the Group-based Model' Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 830–838.
Tyler, T. R., K. Rasinski and K. McGraw: 1985, 'The Influence of Perceived Injustice on Support for Political, Authorities' Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15, 700–725.
About this article
Cite this article
Hartman, S.J., Yrle, A.C. & Galle, W.P. Procedural and Distributive Justice: Examining Equity in a University Setting. Journal of Business Ethics 20, 337–352 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006102216883