Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 273–288 | Cite as

Business, Consumers and Sustainable Living in an Interconnected World: A Multilateral Ecocentric Approach

  • Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer
Article

Abstract

Current conceptualizations of environmental responsibility follow a human-centered approach wherein the natural environment is seen as instrumental to human ends. Environmental responsibility, in this context, emerges primarily as the preservation and sustenance of nature in a manner that would limit waste, enhance the aesthetic and spiritual value of nature, and confer psychological and economic rewards upon individuals and businesses that follow a sustainable course of interaction with nature. In contrast, this paper advances an ecocentric approach to sustainable living that ensures the dialectic between human systems and natural and technical systems by explicitly recognizing nature as central to survival and progress. Environmental responsibility within this approach is viewed to be multilateral and institutional rather than merely as moral responsibility of business or of governments.

Keywords

Economic Growth Natural Environment Moral Responsibility Current Conceptualization Technical System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antil, J. H.: 1984, 'Socially Responsible Consumers: Profile and Implications for Public Policy', Journal of Macromarketing 1, 18–39.Google Scholar
  2. Bandyopadhyay, J. and V. Shiva: 1989, 'Development, Poverty, and the Growth of the Green Movement in India', Ecologist 19, 111–117.Google Scholar
  3. Barbier, E.: 1987, 'The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development', Environmental Conservation 14, 101–110.Google Scholar
  4. Bookchin, M.: 1980, Toward An Ecological Society (Black Rose Books, Montreal).Google Scholar
  5. Costanza, R., H. E. Daly and J. A. Bartholomew: 1991, 'Goals, Agenda and Policy Recommendations for Ecological Economics', in R. Costanza (ed.), Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability (Columbia University Press, New York).Google Scholar
  6. Des Jardins, J. J.: 1993, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy (Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA).Google Scholar
  7. Eckersley, R.: 1992, Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward An Ecocentric Approach (SUNY Press, Albany, NY).Google Scholar
  8. Ecologist: 'Economy and Economics', 22, 173–179.Google Scholar
  9. Ellen, P. S., J. L. Wiener and C. Cobb-Walgren: 1991, 'The Role of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness in Motivating Environmentally Conscious Behaviors', Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 10, 102–117.Google Scholar
  10. Fairlie, S.: 1992, 'Long Distance, Short Life: Why Big Business Favors Recycling', Ecologist 22, 276–283.Google Scholar
  11. Frankel, G.: 1996, 'The Tobacco Pushers: How the U.S. Government Helped Recruit New Cigarette Smokers Overseas', Washington Post National Weekly Edition (November 25–December 1), 6–9.Google Scholar
  12. Garrett, D. E.: 1987, 'The Effectiveness of Marketing Policy Boycotts: Environmental Opposition to Marketing', Journal of Marketing 51, 46–57.Google Scholar
  13. Gladwin, T. N., J. J. Kennelly and T. Krause: 1995, 'Shifting Paradigms for Sustainable Development: Implications for Management Theory and Research', Academy of Management Review 20, 874–907.Google Scholar
  14. Gill, J. D., L. A. Crosby and J. R. Taylor: 1986, 'Ecological Concern, Attitudes, and Social Norms in Voting Behavior', Public Opinion Quarterly 50, 537–554.Google Scholar
  15. Goodland, R., H. E. Daly, S. El Serafy, and B. von Droste (eds.): 1991, Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development: Building on Brundtland (UNESCO, Paris).Google Scholar
  16. Guerrette, R. H.: 1986, 'Environmental Integrity and Corporate Responsibility', Journal of Business Ethics 5, 409–515.Google Scholar
  17. Hawken, P.: 1993, The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (HarperBusiness, New York).Google Scholar
  18. Herald-Leader: 1991, 'What Isn't Safe at Home is Being Shipped Abroad', May 19, A1, A13; 'Toxic Products from U.S. Threaten Third World Workers', May 20, A1, A5; 'U.S. Drug Firms Thrive on Loose Regulation, Illiteracy in Third World', May 21, A1, A5 (Knight-Ridder News Service and Christopher Scanlon, Lexington, KY).Google Scholar
  19. Irvine, S.: 1989, 'Consuming Fashions? The Limits of Green Consumerism', Ecologist 19, 88–93.Google Scholar
  20. Iyer, G. R.: 1998, 'Ethics in International Marketing', in N. Kumar and H. Steinmann (eds.), Ethics in International Management (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin), in press.Google Scholar
  21. Kersi, A.: 1995, 'Pulp, Paper and Power: How an Industry Reshapes its Social Environment', Ecologist 25, 142–149.Google Scholar
  22. Kinnear, T., J. R. Taylor, and S. Ahmed: 1974, 'Ecologically Concerned Consumers: Who Are They?', Journal of Marketing 38, 20–24.Google Scholar
  23. Kothari, R.: 1990, 'Environment, Technology and Ethics', in J. R. Engel and J. G. Engel (eds.), Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge, International Response (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ), pp. 27–35.Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, M. W.: 1992, Green Delusions: An Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism (Duke University Press, Durham and London).Google Scholar
  25. Naess, A.: 1992, 'Deep Ecology and Ultimate Premises', Society and Nature 1, 108–119.Google Scholar
  26. Pagden, R. (1992), 'Nature and Morality', Environmental Ethics 14 (Fall), 239–251.Google Scholar
  27. Pauchant, T. C. (1996), 'Cheese and Dessert or Cheese or Dessert? The Controversy over the Notion of Ecocentric Management', Academy of Management Review 21, 11–12.Google Scholar
  28. Pepper, D.: 1989, The Roots of Modern Environmentalism (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  29. Plant, C. and D. H. Albert: 1991, 'Green Business in a Gray World – Can It Be Done?', in C. Plant and J. Plant (eds.), Green Business: Hope or Hoax? (New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA), pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  30. Plant, C. and J. Plant (eds.): 1991, Green Business: Hope or Hoax? (New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA).Google Scholar
  31. Poff, D. C. (1994), 'Reconciling the Irreconcilable: The Global Economy and the Environment', Journal of Business Ethics 13, 439–445.Google Scholar
  32. Porter, M. and C. van der Linde (1995), 'Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship', The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, 97–118.Google Scholar
  33. Purser, R. E., C. Park and A. Montuori: 1995, 'Limits to Anthropocentrism: Toward an Ecocentric Organization Paradigm?', Academy of Management Review 20, 3–1089Google Scholar
  34. Sagoff, M.: 1983, 'At the Shrine of Our Lady of F_tima, or Why Political Questions are Not All Economic', in D. Scherer and T. Attig (eds.), Ethics and the Environment (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ), pp. 221–234.Google Scholar
  35. Schmidheiny, S.: 1992, 'The Business Logic of Sustainable Development', Columbia Journal of World Business 27, 18–24.Google Scholar
  36. Shiva, V.: 1989, Staying Alive (Zed Books, London).Google Scholar
  37. Shiva, V.: 1989, 'Ecology, Equity and Self-Reliance', in P. Wignaraja and A. Hussain (eds.), The Challenge in South Asia (United Nations University, Tokyo).Google Scholar
  38. Shiva, V.: 1992, 'Editorial: The Greening of Global Reach', Ecologist 22, 258–259.Google Scholar
  39. Shrivastava, P.: 1995, 'The Role of Corporations in Achieving Ecological Sustainability', Academy of Management Review 20, 936–960.Google Scholar
  40. Shrivastava, P.: 1996, 'Ecocentric Versus Traditional Management: Some Hints to Hanna', Academy of Management Review 21, 9–11.Google Scholar
  41. Skorpen, E. (1991), 'Images of Environment in Corporate America', Journal of Business Ethics 10, 687–697.Google Scholar
  42. Stauber, J. C. and S. Rampton: 1995, '“Democracy” for Hire: Public Relations and Environmental Movements', Ecologist 25, 173–180.Google Scholar
  43. Thomas, L. M.: 1992, 'The Business Community and the Environment: An Important Partnership', Business Horizons 35, 21–24.Google Scholar
  44. Visvanathan, S.: 1991, 'Mrs. Brundtland's Disenchanted Cosmos', Alternatives 16, 377–384.Google Scholar
  45. Wildavsky, A.: 1987, 'Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation', American Political Science Review 81, 3–21.Google Scholar
  46. World Bank: 1992, World Development Report 1992 (Oxford University Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  47. World Commission on Environment and Development: 1987, Our Common Future (Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.).Google Scholar
  48. Winsemius, P. and U. Guntram: 1992, 'Responding to the Environmental Challenge', Business Horizons 35, 12–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MarketingFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonU.S.A.; E-mail

Personalised recommendations