Skip to main content

Vulnerability Assessment of Sea Level Rise Over Port Said Governorate, Egypt

Abstract

An assessment of the impact of sea level rise on the city of Port Said, Egypt has been carried out using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Bruun's is used to estimate horizontal retreat, due to three scenarios of sea level rise, taking into account local subsidence rates. Overlaying horizontal retreat on land use obtained by remote sensing enabled us to estimate possible losses and socio-economic impacts. Results indicate serious physical and socio-economic impacts. It is suggested that protection measures must be carried out with emphasis on building breakwaters along the most vulnerable shoreline area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Bruun, P.: 1962, ‘Sea level rise as a cause of shore erosion', Proc. Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng., J. Waterw. Harbors Div., 88, 117–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • CRI/UNESCO/UNDP.: 1978, Coastal protection studies. Final Technical Report, Paris, 1, 155 p.

  • Delft Hydraulics, and Resource Analysis: 1992, Vulnerability Assessment to Accelerated to Accelerated Sea Level Rise, Case Study Egypt. Final Report October: 1992, Prepared for Commission of European Communities in cooperation with the Coastal Research Institute, Alexandria.

  • Emery, K. O., Aubrey, D. G. and Goldsmith, V.: 1988, ‘Coastal neotectonics of the Mediterranean from tide-gauge records', Marine Geology 81, 41–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Fishawi, N. M. and Fanos, A. M.: 1989, ‘Prediction of sea level rise by 2100, Nile delta coast', INQUA, Comm. Quat. Shoreline Newsl. 11, 43–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Raey, M.: 1990, ‘Responses to the Impacts of Greenhouse-Induced Sea Level Rise on Egypt', in Titus, J. G. (ed.), Changing Climate and the Coast, Washington D. C., U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 2, 225–233.

  • El Raey, M., Nasr, S., Frihy, O., Desouki, S. and Dewidar, Kh.: 1995, ‘Potential impacts of accelerated sea-level rise on Alexandria Governorate, Egypt', J. Coastal Research 14, 190–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Raey, M., Ahmed, S. and Korany, E.: 1997a, ‘Remote sensing and GIS for vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea level rise over Alexandria city and vicinity, Egypt', Int. J. Remote Sensing, (in print).

  • El Raey, M., Fouda, Y. and Nasr, S.: 1997b, ‘GIS Assessment of the vulberability of the Rosetta area, Egypt to impacts of sea rise', Environ. Monit. Assess. 47(1), pp. 59–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • El Sayed, M. Kh.: 1988, ‘Sea level rise in Alexandria during the late Holocene: Archaeological evidences', Rapp. Comm. Int. Medit., 31 pp.

  • Fanos, A. M., Khafagy, A. A. and Dean, R. G.: 1995, ‘Protective works on the Nile Delta coast', J. Coastal Res. 1, 516–528.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frihy, O. E.: 1991, ‘Sea level rise and shoreline retreat of the Nile Delta promontories, Egypt', Natural Hazards 5: 65–81.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frihy, O. E.: 1992, ‘Beach response to sea level rise along the Delta coast of Egypt', Journal International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the American Geophysical Union 11, 81–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frihy, O. E., Dewidar, Kh. M., Nasr, S. M. and El Raey, M.: 1996, ‘Change Detection of the northeastern Nile delta: shoreline change, spit evolution, margin changes of Manzala lake and its islands, Egypt', Intern. J. of Remote Sensing, (In print).

  • Hallermeier, R. J.: 1981, ‘A profile zonation for seasonal sand beaches from wave climate', J. Coastal Engineering 4, 253–277.

    Google Scholar 

  • IDSC: 1995, Periodic Bulletin produced by the Cabinet Information and Decision Support Center of Port Said Governorate.

  • IPCC: 1995, Strategies for adaptation to sea level rise. IPCC Coastal Zone Management Subgroup, Rijkswaterstaat, The Netherlands.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milliman, J. D., Broadus, J. M. and Gable, F.: 1989, ‘Environmental and economic implications of rising sea level and subsiding deltas: The Nile and Bengal examples', AMBIO 18, 340–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nafaa, M. G. and Frihy, O. E.: 1993, ‘Beach and Nearshore features along the dissipative coastline of the Nile Delta, Egypt', J. Coastal Research 2, 423–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicholls, R. J., Leatherman, S. P., Dennis, K. C. and Volonte, C. R.: 1994, ‘Impacts and responses to sea level rise: Qualitative and Quantitative assessments', J. Coastal Research (special issue 14, 205–215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegel, F. R., Slaboda, M. L. and Stanley, D. J.: 1994, ‘Metal pollution loading, Manzala lake, Nile Delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture', Environ. Geology 23, 89–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sestini, G.: 1989, The Implications of Climate Changes for the Nile Delta. ReportWG 2/14. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP/OCA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanley, D. J.: 1990, ‘Recent subsidence and northeast tilting of the Nile Delta, Egypt', Mar. Geol. 94, 147–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanley, D. J. and Warne, G. A.: 1993, ‘Nile Delta: Recent geological evolution and human impact', Science 260, 628–634.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

El-Raey, M., Frihy, O., Nasr, S.M. et al. Vulnerability Assessment of Sea Level Rise Over Port Said Governorate, Egypt. Environ Monit Assess 56, 113–128 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005946819600

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005946819600

  • climate change
  • coastal erosion
  • GIS
  • Mediterranean coast
  • Nile delta
  • remote sensing