, Volume 42, Issue 1–2, pp 169–187 | Cite as

Plant-soil Interactions in Deserts

  • William H. Schlesinger
  • Adrienne M. Pilmanis


Geostatistical analyses show that the distribution of soil N, P and K is strongly associated with the presence of shrubs in desert habitats. Shrubs concentrate the biogeochemical cycle of these elements in ‘islands of fertility’ that are localized beneath their canopies, while adjacent barren, intershrub spaces are comparatively devoid of biotic activity. Both physical and biological processes are involved in the formation of shrub islands. Losses of semiarid grassland in favor of invading shrubs initiate these changes in the distribution of soil nutrients, which may promote the further invasion and persistence of shrubs and cause potential feedbacks between desertification and the Earth's climate system.

aridisols desertification erosion geostatistics Larrea tridentata nitrogen phosphorus Prosopis glandulosa soil heterogeneity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrahams AD & Parsons AJ (1991) Relation between infiltration and stone cover on a semiarid hillslope, southern Arizona. Journal of Hydrology 122: 49-59Google Scholar
  2. Abrahams AD, Parsons AJ & Wainwright J (1994) Resistance to overland flow on semiarid grassland and shrubland hillslopes, Walnut Gulch, southern Arizona. Journal of Hydrology 156: 431-446Google Scholar
  3. Abrahams AD, Parsons AJ & Wainwright J (1995) Effects of vegetation change on interrill runoff and erosion, Walnut Gulch, southern Arizona. Geomorphology 13: 37-48Google Scholar
  4. Ackerman SA & Chung H (1992) Radiative effects of airborne dust on regional energy budgets at the top of the atmosphere. Journal of Applied Meterology 31: 223-233Google Scholar
  5. Adams S, Strain BR & Adams MS (1970) Water-repellent soils, fire, and annual plant cover in a desert scrub community of southeastern California. Ecology 51: 696-700Google Scholar
  6. Afzal M & Adams WA (1992) Heterogeneity of soil mineral nitrogen in pasture grazed by cattle. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1160-1166Google Scholar
  7. Aguiar MR, Paruelo, JM, Sala OE & Lauenroth WK (1996) Ecosystem responses to changes in plant functional type composition: An example from the Patagonian steppe. Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 381-390Google Scholar
  8. Amundson RG, Chadwick OA, Sowers JM & Doner HE (1989) The stable isotope chemistry of pedogenic carbonates at Kyle Canyon, Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 201-210Google Scholar
  9. Arkley RJ (1963) Calculation of carbonate and water movement in soil from climatic data. Soil Science 92: 239-248Google Scholar
  10. Bach LB, Wierenga PJ & Ward TJ (1986) Estimation of the Philip infiltration parameters from rainfall simulation data. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50: 1319-1323Google Scholar
  11. Balling RC (1988) The climatic impact of a Sonoran vegetation discontinuity. Climatic Change 13: 99-109Google Scholar
  12. Balling RC (1989) The impact of summer rainfall on the temperature gradient along the United States-Mexico border. Journal of Applied Meteorology 28: 304-308Google Scholar
  13. Boeken B & Shachak M (1994) Desert plant communities in human-made patches — implications for management. Ecological Applications 4: 702-716Google Scholar
  14. Brown JH & Heske EJ (1990) Control of a desert-grassland transition by a keystone rodent guild. Science 250: 1705-1707Google Scholar
  15. Bryant NA, Johnson LF, Brazel AJ, Balling RC, Hutchinson CF & Beck LR (1990) Measuring the effect of overgrazing in the Sonoran desert. Climatic Change 17: 243-264Google Scholar
  16. Buffington LC & Herbel CH (1965) Vegetational changes on a semidesert grassland range from 1858 to 1963. Ecological Monographs 35: 139-164Google Scholar
  17. Bull WB (1979) Threshold of critical power in streams. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 90: 453-464Google Scholar
  18. Burke IC, Reiners WA, Sturges DL & Matson PA (1987) Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 1337-1343Google Scholar
  19. Bush JK & Van Auken OW (1989) Soil resource levels and competition between a woody and herbaceous species. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 116: 22-30Google Scholar
  20. Bush JK & Van Auken OW (1995) Woody plant growth related to planting time and clipping of a C4 grass. Ecology 76: 1603-1609Google Scholar
  21. Cable DR (1980) Seasonal parterns of soil water recharge and extraction on semidesert ranges. Journal of Range Management 33: 9-15Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter DE, Barbour MG & Bahre CJ (1986) Old field succession in Mojave desert scrub. Madrono 33: 111-122Google Scholar
  23. Cerling TE (1984) The stable isotope composition of modern soil carbonate and its relationship to climate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 71: 229-240Google Scholar
  24. Chahine MT (1995) Observations of local cloud and moisture feedbacks over high ocean and desert surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 8919-8927Google Scholar
  25. Charley JL & West NE (1975) Plant-induced soil chemical patterns in some shrub-dominated semi-desert ecosystems of Utah. Journal of Ecology 63: 945-964Google Scholar
  26. Charley JL & West NE (1977) Micro-patterns of nitrogen mineralization activity in soils of some shrub-dominated semi-desert ecosystems of Utah. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 9: 357-365Google Scholar
  27. Chew RM & Whitford WG (1992) A long-term positive effect of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) on creosotebushes (Larrea tridentata). Journal of Arid Environments 22: 375-386Google Scholar
  28. Coale KH, Johnson KS, Fitzwater SE, Gordon RM, Tanner S, Chavez FP, Ferioli L, Sakamoto C, Rogers P, Millero F, Steinberg P, Nightingale P, Cooper D, Cochlan WP, Landry MR, Constantinou J, Rollwagen G, Trasvina A & Kudela R (1996) A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific ocean. Nature 383: 495-501Google Scholar
  29. Connin SL, Virginia RA, Chamberlain P, Huenneke L, Harrison K & Schlesinger WH (1997) Dynamics of carbon storage in degraded arid land environments: A case study from the Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico (USA). In: Squires VR (Ed) Drylands and Global Change in the Twenty-First Century. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  30. Coppinger KD, Reiners WA, Burke IC & Olson RK (1991) Net erosion on a sagebrush steppe landscape as determined by cesium-137 distribution. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55: 254-258Google Scholar
  31. Courel MF, Kandel RS & Rasool SI (1984) Surface albedo and the Sahel drought. Nature 307: 528-531Google Scholar
  32. Cross AFS (1994) Biogeochemistry at the Grassland-Shrubland Boundary: A Case Study of Desertification in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
  33. Dirmeyer PA & Shukla J (1996) The effect on regional and global climate of expansion of the world's deserts. Quarterley Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 122: 451-482Google Scholar
  34. Duce RA & Tindale NW (1991) Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 36: 1715-1726Google Scholar
  35. Freckman DW & Mankau R (1986) Abundance, distribution, biomass and energetics of soil nematodes in a northern Mojave desert ecosystem. Pedobiologia 29: 129-142Google Scholar
  36. Fryrear DW (1995) Soil losses by wind erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59: 668-672Google Scholar
  37. Gallardo A & Schlesinger WH (1992) Carbon and nitrogen limitations of soil microbial biomass in desert ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 18: 1-17Google Scholar
  38. Gallardo A & Schlesinger WH (1995) Factors determining soil microbial biomass and nutrient immobilization in desert soils. Biogeochemistry 28: 55-68Google Scholar
  39. Garcia Moya E & McKell CM (1970) Contribution of shrubs to the nitrogen economy of a desert-wash plant community. Ecology 51: 81-88Google Scholar
  40. Garner W & Steinberger Y (1989) A proposed mechanism for the formation of ‘fertile islands’ in the desert ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 16: 257-262Google Scholar
  41. Gerakis PA & Tsangarakis CZ (1970) The influence of Acacia senegalon the fertility of a sand sheet ('goz') soil in the central Sudan. Plant and Soil 33: 81-86Google Scholar
  42. Gillette DA, Stensland GJ, Williams AL, Barnard W, Gatz D, Sinclair PC & Johnson TC (1992) Emissions of alkaline elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium from open sources in the contiguous United States. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 6: 437-457Google Scholar
  43. Gutierrez J & Hernandez II (1996) Runoff and interrill erosion as affected by grass cover in a semi-arid rangeland of northern Mexico. Journal of Arid Environments 34: 287-295Google Scholar
  44. Hallmark CT & Allen BL (1975) The distribution of creosotebush in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico as affected by selected soil properties. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 39: 120-124Google Scholar
  45. Halvorson JJ, Bolton H & Smith JL (1997) The pattern of soil variables related to Artemisia tridentatain a burned shrub-steppe site. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 287-294Google Scholar
  46. Herman RP, Provencio KR, Herrera-Matos J & Torrez RJ (1995) Resource islands predict the distribution of heterotrophic bacteria in Chihuahuan desert soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 1816-1821Google Scholar
  47. Heske EJ, Brown JH & Guo Q (1993) Effects of kangaroo rat exclusion on vegetation structure and plant species diversity in the Chihuahuan desert. Oecologia 95: 520-524Google Scholar
  48. Hook PB, Burke IC & Lauenroth WK (1991) Heterogeneity of soil and plant N and C associated with individual plants and openings in North American shortgrass steppe. Plant and Soil 138: 247-256Google Scholar
  49. Huenneke LF, Anderson J, Muldavin E & Schlesinger WH (in prep.) Spatial and temporal variation in aboveground biomass and net primary production in Chihuahuan desert ecosystems. ManuscriptGoogle Scholar
  50. Inskeep WP & Bloom PR (1986) Kinetics of calcite precipitation in the presence of water-soluble organic ligands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50: 1167-1172Google Scholar
  51. Kelly EF, Chadwick OA & Hilinski TE (1998) The effect of plants on mineral weathering. Biogeochemistry, this issueGoogle Scholar
  52. Kieft TL (1994) Grazing and plant-canopy effects on semiarid soil microbial biomass and respiration. Biology and Fertility of Soils 18: 155-162Google Scholar
  53. Lajtha K (1987) Nutrient reabsorption efficiency and the response to phosphorus fertilization in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata(DC.) Cov. Biogeochemistry 4: 265-276Google Scholar
  54. Lajtha K & Bloomer SH (1988) Factors affecting phosphate sorption and phosphate retention in a desert ecosystem. Soil Science 146: 160-167Google Scholar
  55. Lajtha K & Schlesinger WH (1986) Plant response to variations in nitrogen availability in a desert shrubland community. Biogeochemistry 2: 29-37Google Scholar
  56. Lajtha K & Schlesinger WH (1988) The effect of CaCO3on the uptake of phosphorus by two desert shrub species, Larrea tridentata(DC.) Cov. and Parthenium incanumH.B.K. Botanical Gazette 149: 328-334Google Scholar
  57. Loye-Pilot MD, Martin JM & Morelli J (1986) Influence of Saharan dust on the rain acidity and atmospheric input to the Mediterranean. Nature 321: 427-428Google Scholar
  58. Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF & Whitson PD (1975) Size-biomass relationships of several Chihuahuan desert shrubs. American Midland Naturalist 94: 451-461Google Scholar
  59. Lyford FP & Qashu HK (1969) Infiltration rates as affected by desert vegetation. Water Resources Research 5: 1373-1376Google Scholar
  60. Marion GM & Babcock KL (1977) The solubilities of carbonates and phosphates in calcareous soil suspensions. Soil Science Society of American Journal 41: 724-728Google Scholar
  61. Marion GM, Schlesinger WH & Fonteyn PJ (1985) CALDEP: A regional model for soil CaCO3(caliche) deposition in southwestern deserts. Soil Science 139: 468-481Google Scholar
  62. Marion GM, Schlesinger WH & Fonteyn PJ (1990) Spatial variability of CaCO3solubility in a Chihuahuan desert soil. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 4: 181-191Google Scholar
  63. Martin JH (1990) Glacial-interglacial CO2change: The iron hypothesis. Paleoceanography 5: 1-13Google Scholar
  64. Martinez-Meza E & Whitford WG (1996) Stemflow, throughfall and channelization of stemflow by roots in three Chihuahuan desert shrubs. Journal of Arid Environments 32: 271-287Google Scholar
  65. Mauchamp A & Janeau JL (1993) Water funnelling by the crown of Flourensia cernua, a Chihuahuan desert shrub. Journal of Arid Environments 25: 299-306Google Scholar
  66. Mazzarino MJ, Oliva L, Abril A & Acosta M (1991) Factors affecting nitrogen dynamics in a semiarid woodland (Dry Chaco, Argentina). Plant and Soil 138: 85-98Google Scholar
  67. McAuliffe J (1988) Markovian dynamics of simple and complex desert communities. American Naturalist 131: 459-490Google Scholar
  68. Mun H-T & Whitford WG (1990) Factors affecting annual plants assemblages on banner tailed kangaroo rat mounds. Journal of Arid Environments 18: 165-173Google Scholar
  69. Naranjo LG & Raitt RJ (1993) Breeding bird distribution in Chihuahuan desert habitats. Southwestern Naturalist 38: 43-51Google Scholar
  70. Nasrallah HA & Balling RC (1994) The effect of overgrazing on historical temperature trends. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 71: 425-430Google Scholar
  71. Návar J & Bryan R (1990) Interception loss and rainfall redistribution by three semi-arid growing shrubs in northeastern Mexico. Journal of Hydrology 115: 51-63Google Scholar
  72. Nishita H & Haug RM (1973) Distribution of different forms of nitrogen in some desert soils. Soil Science 116: 51-58Google Scholar
  73. Noy-Meir I (1985) Desert ecosystem structure and function. In: Evenari M et al. (Eds) Hot Deserts and Arid Shrublands (pp 93-103). Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  74. Parsons AJ, Abrahams AD & Simanton JR (1992) Microtopography and soil-surface materials on semi-arid piedmont hillslopes, southern Arizona. Journal of Arid Environments 22: 107-115Google Scholar
  75. Peterjohn WT & Schlesinger WH (1991) Factors controlling denitrification in a Chihuahuan desert ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55: 1694-1701Google Scholar
  76. Phinn S, Franklin J, Hope A, Stow D & Huenneke L (1996) Biomass distribution mapping using airborne digital video imagery and spatial statistics in a semi-arid environment. Journal of Environmental Management 47: 139-164Google Scholar
  77. Pianka ER (1967) On lizard species diversity: North American flatland deserts. Ecology 48: 333-351Google Scholar
  78. Pilmanis AM & Schlesinger WH (1998) Spatial Assessment of Desertification in Terms of Vegetation Pattern and Available Soil Nitrogen. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Desert Development. Texas Tech University, LubbockGoogle Scholar
  79. Quade J, Cerling TE & Bowman JR (1989a) Development of Asian monsoon revealed by marked ecological shift during the latest Miocene in northern Pakistan. Nature 342: 163-166Google Scholar
  80. Quade J, Cerling TE & Bowman JR (1989b) Systematic variations in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate along elevation transects in the southern Great Basin, United States. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101: 464-475Google Scholar
  81. Reddy KJ, Lindsay WL, Workman SM & Drever JI (1990) Measurement of calcite ion activity products in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54: 67-71Google Scholar
  82. Reheis MC & Kihl R (1995) Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984–1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 8893-8918Google Scholar
  83. Reynolds RC (1978) Polyphenol inhibition of calcite precipitation in Lake Powell. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 585-597Google Scholar
  84. Rind D, Goldberg R, Hansen J, Rosenzweig C & Ruedy R (1990) Potential evapotranspiration and the likelihood of future drought. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 9983-10004Google Scholar
  85. Roda F, Bellot J, Avila A, Escarre A, Pinol J & Terradas J (1993) Saharan dust and the atmospheric inputs of elements and alkalinity to Mediterranean ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 66: 277-288Google Scholar
  86. Rostagno CM (1989) Infiltration and sediment production as affected by soil surface conditions in a shrubland of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Range Management 42: 382-385Google Scholar
  87. Rostagno CM, del Valle HF & Videla L (1991) The influence of shrubs on some chemical and physical properties of an aridic soil in north-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments 20: 179-188Google Scholar
  88. Ryel RJ, Caldwell MM & Manwaring JH (1996) Temporal dynamics of soil spatial heterogeneity in sagebrush-wheatgrass steppe during a growing season. Plant and Soil 184: 299-309Google Scholar
  89. Santos PF, DePree E & Whitford WG (1978) Spatial distribution of litter and microarthropods in a Chihuahuan desert ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 1: 41-48Google Scholar
  90. Schlesinger WH (1985) The formation of caliche in soils of the Mojave desert, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49: 57-66Google Scholar
  91. Schlesinger WH & Hartley AE (1992) A global budget for atmospheric NH3. Biogeochemistry 15: 191-211Google Scholar
  92. Schlesinger WH & Peterjohn WT (1991) Processes controlling ammonia volatilization from Chihuahuan desert soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 23: 637-642Google Scholar
  93. Schlesinger WH, Fonteyn PJ & Reiners WA (1989) Effects of overland flow on plant water relations, erosion, and soil water percolation on a Mojave Desert landscape. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53: 1567-1572Google Scholar
  94. Schlesinger WH, Reynolds JF, Cunningham GL, Huenneke LF, Jarrell WM, Virginia RA & Whitford WG (1990) Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science 247: 1043-1048Google Scholar
  95. Schlesinger WH, Raikes JA, Hartley AE & Cross AF (1996) On the spatial pattern of soil nutrients in desert ecosystems. Ecology 77: 364-374Google Scholar
  96. Schütz L (1980) Long range transport of desert dust with special emphasis on the Sahara. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 338: 515-532Google Scholar
  97. Sequeira R (1993) On the large-scale impact of arid dust on precipitation chemistry of the continental northern hemisphere. Atmospheric Environment 27A: 1553-1565Google Scholar
  98. Singer A (1989) Illite in the hot-aridic soil environment. Soil Science 147: 126-133Google Scholar
  99. Smith JL, Halvorson II & Bolton H (1994) Spatial relationships of soil microbial biomass and C and N mineralization in a semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1151-1159Google Scholar
  100. Snow JT & McClelland TM (1990) Dust devils at White Sands Missle Range, New Mexico. I. Temporal and spatial distributions. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 13707-13721Google Scholar
  101. Sokolik IN & Toon OB (1996) Direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic airborne mineral aerosols. Nature 381: 681-683Google Scholar
  102. Stockton PH & Gillette DA (1990) Field measurement of the sheltering effect of vegetation on erodible land surfaces. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 2: 77-85Google Scholar
  103. Suarez DL & Rhoades JD (1982) The apparent solubility of calcium carbonate in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 46: 716-722Google Scholar
  104. Swap R, Garstang M, Greco S, Talbot R & Kallberg P (1992) Saharan dust in the Amazon basin. Tellus 44B: 133-149Google Scholar
  105. Talbot RW, Harriss RC, Browell EV, Gregory GL, Sebacher DI & Beck SM (1986) Distribution and geochemistry of aerosols in the tropical North Atlantic troposphere: Relationship to Saharan dust. Journal of Geophysical Research 91: 5173-5182Google Scholar
  106. Tegen I & Fung I (1995) Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modification. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 18707-18726Google Scholar
  107. Tegen I, Lacis AA & Fung I (1996) The influence on climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils. Nature 380: 419-422Google Scholar
  108. Tiedemann AR & Klemmedson JO (1973) Effect of mesquite on physical and chemical properties of the soil. Journal of Range Management 26: 27-29Google Scholar
  109. Tiedemann AR & Klemmedson JO (1986) Long-term effects of mesquite removal on soil characteristics: I. Nutrients and bulk density. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50: 472-475Google Scholar
  110. Tongway DJ & Ludwig JA (1994) Small-scale resource heterogeneity in semi-arid landscapes. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 201-208Google Scholar
  111. Virginia RA & Jarrell WM (1983) Soil properties in a mesquite-dominated Sonoran desert ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47: 138-144Google Scholar
  112. Virginia RA, Jarrell WM & Franco-Vizcaino E (1982) Direct measurement of denitrification in a Prosopis(mesquite) dominated Sonoran desert ecosystem. Oecologia 53: 120-122Google Scholar
  113. Wallace A & Romney EM (1972) Radioecology and Ecophysiology of Desert Plants at the Nevada Test Site. Environmental Radiation Division, Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology, University of California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  114. Wallace A, Romney EM & Hunter RB (1980) The challenge of a desert: Revegetation of disturbed desert lands. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 4: 216-225Google Scholar
  115. Wendler G & Eaton F (1983) On the desertification of the Sahel zone. Climatic Change 5: 365-380Google Scholar
  116. West NE & Skujins J (1977) The nitrogen cycle in North American cold-winter semi-desert ecosystems. Oecologia Plantarum 12: 45-53Google Scholar
  117. West NE & Klemmedson JO (1978) Structural distribution of nitrogen in desert ecosystems. In: West NE & Skujins J (Eds) Nitrogen in Desert Ecosystems (pp 1-16). Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  118. West NE (1990) Structure and function of microphytic soil crusts in wildland ecosystems of arid to semi-arid regions. Advances in Ecological Research 20: 179-223Google Scholar
  119. Westerman RL & Tucker TC (1979) In situ transformations of nitrogen-15 labeled materials in Sonoran desert soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43: 95-100Google Scholar
  120. Whitford WG (1993) Animal feedbacks in desertification: An overview. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 66: 243-251Google Scholar
  121. Whitford WG, Anderson J & Rice PM (1997) Stemflow contributions to the ‘fertile island’ effect in creosotebush, Larrea tridentata. Journal of Arid Environments 35: 451-457Google Scholar
  122. Wood JC, Wood MK & Tromble JM (1987) Important factors influencing water infiltration and sediment production on arid lands in New Mexico. Journal of Arid Environments 12: 111-118Google Scholar
  123. Wright RA & Honea JH (1986) Aspects of desertification in southern New Mexico, U.S.A.: Soil properties of a mesquite duneland and a former grassland. Journal of Arid Environments 11: 139-145Google Scholar
  124. Yaalon DH (1965) Downward movement and distribution of anions in soil profiles with limited wetting. In: Hallsworth ED & Crawford DV (Eds) Experimental Pedology (pp 157-164). Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. Young JR, Ellis EC & Hidy GM (1988) Deposition of air-borne acidifiers in the western environment. Journal of Environmental Quality 17: 1-26Google Scholar
  126. Yung YL, Lee T, Wang C-H & Shieh Y-T (1996) Dust: A diagnostic of the hydrologic cycle during the last glacial maximum. Science 271: 962-963Google Scholar
  127. Zaady E, Groffman PM & Shachak M (1996) Litter as a regulator of N and C dynamics in macrophytic patches in Negev desert soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 39-46Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Schlesinger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adrienne M. Pilmanis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA;
  2. 2.Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations