In 1988, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, along withthe University of Iowa conducted the Statewide Rural WellWater Survey, commonly known as SWRL. A total of 686private rural drinking water wells was selected by use of aprobability sample and tested for pesticides and nitrates. Sixty-eight of these wells, the ’10% repeat‘ wells, were additionallysampled in October, 1990 and June, 1991. Starting inNovember, 1991, the University of Iowa, with sponsorshipfrom the United States Environmental Protection Agency,revisited these wells to begin a study of the temporalvariability of atrazine and nitrates in wells. Other wells, whichhad originally tested positive for atrazine in SWRL but werenot in the 10% repeat population, were added to the studypopulation. Temporal sampling for a year-long period beganin February of 1992 and concluded in January of 1993. Allwells were sampled monthly, one subset was sampled weekly,and a second subset was sampled for 14-day consecutiveperiods. Two unique aspects of this study were the use of animmunoassay technique to screen for triazines before gaschromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis andquantification of atrazine, and the use of well owners to samplethe wells. A total of 1771 samples from 83 wells are in thefinal data base for this study. This paper reviews the studydesign, the analytical methodologies, and development of thedata base. A companion paper (Pinsky et al., 1997) discussesthe analysis of the data from this survey.
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Lorber, M., Johnson, K., Kross, B. et al. a study of the temporal variability of atrazine in private well water. part i: study design, implementation, and database development. Environ Monit Assess 47, 175–195 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005700803802
- temporal variability
- well water