a study of the temporal variability of atrazine in private well water. part i: study design, implementation, and database development
- 50 Downloads
In 1988, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, along withthe University of Iowa conducted the Statewide Rural WellWater Survey, commonly known as SWRL. A total of 686private rural drinking water wells was selected by use of aprobability sample and tested for pesticides and nitrates. Sixty-eight of these wells, the ’10% repeat‘ wells, were additionallysampled in October, 1990 and June, 1991. Starting inNovember, 1991, the University of Iowa, with sponsorshipfrom the United States Environmental Protection Agency,revisited these wells to begin a study of the temporalvariability of atrazine and nitrates in wells. Other wells, whichhad originally tested positive for atrazine in SWRL but werenot in the 10% repeat population, were added to the studypopulation. Temporal sampling for a year-long period beganin February of 1992 and concluded in January of 1993. Allwells were sampled monthly, one subset was sampled weekly,and a second subset was sampled for 14-day consecutiveperiods. Two unique aspects of this study were the use of animmunoassay technique to screen for triazines before gaschromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis andquantification of atrazine, and the use of well owners to samplethe wells. A total of 1771 samples from 83 wells are in thefinal data base for this study. This paper reviews the studydesign, the analytical methodologies, and development of thedata base. A companion paper (Pinsky et al., 1997) discussesthe analysis of the data from this survey.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Burt, T. P., Arkell, B. P., Trudgill, S. T. and Walling, D. E.: 1988, ‘Stream nitrate levels in a small catchment in south-west England over a period of 15 years (1970–1985)’, Hydrological Processes 2: 267–284.Google Scholar
- Hallberg, G. R., Kross, B. C., Libra, R. D., Burmeister, L. F., Weih, L. M. B., Lynch, C. F., Bruner, D. R., Lewis, M. Q., Cherryholmes, K. L., Johnson, J. K. and Culp, M. A.: 1990, The Iowa state-wide rural well-water survey: Design report: ‘A systematic sample of domestic drinking water quality’, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Technical Information Series 17.Google Scholar
- Federal Register: 1994, ‘Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review’, Federal Register, Volume 59,No. 225, Wednesday, November 23, 1994, pp. 60412–60443.Google Scholar
- Kross, B. C., Hallberg, G. R., Bruner, R. D., Libra, R. D., Rex, K. D., Weih, L. M. B., Vermace, M. E., Burmeister, L. F., Hall, N. H., Cherryholmes, K. L., Johnson, J. K., Selim, M. I., Nations, B. K., Seigley, L. S., Quade, D. J., Dudler, A. G., Sesker, K. D., Culp, M. A., Lynch, C. F., Nicholson, H. F. and Hughes, J. P.: 1990, ‘The Iowa state-wide rural well-water survey water quality data: Initial analysis’, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Technical Information Series 19.Google Scholar
- Libra, R. D., Hallberg, G. R., Rex, K. D., Kross, B. C., Seigley, L. S., Culp, M. A., Field, R. W., Quade, D. J., Selim, M., Nations, B. K., Hall, N. H., Etre, L. A., Johnson, J. K., Nicholson, H. F., Berberich, S. L. and Cherryholmes, K. L.: 1993, ‘The Iowa state-wide rural well-water survey: June 1991’, Repeat Sampling of the 10% Subset, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Technical Information Series 26.Google Scholar
- Meyer, M. T., Mills, M. S. and Thurman, E. M.: 1993, ‘Automated solid-phase extraction of herbicides from water for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis’, Journal of Chromatography 629, 55–59.Google Scholar
- Pinsky, P., Lorber, M., Johnson, K., Kross, B., Burmeister, L., Wilkins, A. and Hallberg, G.: 1997, A Study of the Temporal Variability of Atrazine in Private Well Water. Part II. Analysis of Data, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 47, 197–221.Google Scholar
- Rex, K. D., Libra, R. D., Hallberg, G. R., Kross, B. C., Field, R. W., Etre, L. A., Seigley, L. S., Culp, M. A., Nations, B. K., Quade, D. J., Johnson, J. K., Nicholson, H. F., Cherryholmes, K. L. and Hall, N. H.: 1993, ‘The Iowa state-wide rural well-water survey: October 1990’, Repeat Sampling of the 10% Subset: Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Technical Information Series 25.Google Scholar
- Thurman, E. M., Meyer, M., Pomes, M., Perry, C. A. and Schwab, A. P.: 1990, ‘Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for determination of triazines in water’, Analytical Chemistry 62(18), 2043–2048.Google Scholar
- Van Emon, J. M. and Lopez-Avilla, V.: 1992, ‘Immunochemical methods for environmental analysis’, Analytical Chemistry 64(2), 79–88.Google Scholar