Climatic Change

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 223–251 | Cite as

An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability

  • Barry Smit
  • Ian Burton
  • Richard J.T. Klein
  • J. Wandel
Article

Abstract

Adaptation to climate variability and change is important both for impact assessment (to estimate adaptations which are likely to occur) and for policy development (to advise on or prescribe adaptations). This paper proposes an "anatomy of adaptation" to systematically specify and differentiate adaptations, based upon three questions: (i) adapt to what? (ii) who or what adapts? and (iii) how does adaptation occur? Climatic stimuli include changes in long-term mean conditions and variability about means, both current and future, and including extremes. Adaptation depends fundamentally on the characteristics of the system of interest, including its sensitivities and vulnerabilities. The nature of adaptation processes and forms can be distinguished by numerous attributes including timing, purposefulness, and effect. The paper notes the contribution of conceptual and numerical models and empirical studies to the understanding of adaptation, and outlines approaches to the normative evaluation of adaptation measures and strategies.

Keywords

Climate Change Numerical Model Empirical Study Normative Evaluation Impact Assessment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abererombie, M., Hickman, C.J., and Johnson, M.L.: 1977, A Dictionary of Biology, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, R.M., Fleming, R.A., McCarl, B., and Rosenzweig, C.: 1993, ‘A Reassessment of the Economic Effects of Global Climate Change on U.S. Agriculture’, Climatic Change 30, 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger, W.N.: 1999, ‘Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam’, World Development 27(2), in press.Google Scholar
  4. Adger, W.N., and Kelly, P.M.: 1998, ‘Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and the Architecture of Entitlements’, forthcoming in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.Google Scholar
  5. Alabala-Bertrand, J.M.: 1993, Political Economy of Large Natural Disasters: with Special Reference to Developing Countries, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Ausubel, J.H.: 1991, ‘Does Climate Still Matter?’, Nature, 350, 649–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bijlsma, L., Ehler, C.N., Klein, R.J.T., Klushrestha, S.M., McLean, R.F., Mimura, N., Nicholls, R.J., Nurse, L.A., Pérez Nieto, H., Stakhiv, E.Z., Turner, R.K., and Warrick, R.A.: 1996, ‘Coastal Zones and Small Islands’, in Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., and Moss, R.H. (eds.), Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 289–324.Google Scholar
  8. Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., and Wisner, B.: 1994, At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  9. Bohle, H.G., Downing, T.E., and Watts, M.J.: 1994, ‘Climate Change and Social Vulnerability: Toward a Sociology and Geography of Food Insecurity’, Global Environmental Change — Human and Policy Dimensions 4(1), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruce, J.P., Hoesung, L., and Haites, E.F.: 1996, Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Burton, I.: 1992, Adapt and Thrive. Canadian Climate Centre unpublished manuscript, Downsview, Ontario.Google Scholar
  12. Burton, I., Kates, R.W., and White, G.F.: 1993, The Environment as Hazard, Guildford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Burton, I.: 1996, ‘The Growth of Adaptation Capacity: Practice and Policy’, in Smith, J.B., Bhatti, N., Menzhulin, G., Benioff, R., Budyko, M., Campos, M., Jallow, B., and Rijsberman, F. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burton, I.: 1997, ‘Vulnerability and Adaptive Response in the Context of Climate and Climate Change’, Climatic Change 36, 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Callaway J.M., Næss, L.O., and Ringius, L.: 1997, ‘Adaptation Costs: A Framework and Methods’, in Sathaye, J.A. and Christensen, J. (eds.), Mitigation and Adaptation Cost Assessment: Concepts, Methods and Appropriate Use, Draft.Google Scholar
  16. Carter, T.P., Parry, M.L., Harasawa, H., and Nishioka, N.: 1994, IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations, University College London, London.Google Scholar
  17. Darwin, R., Tsigas, M., Lewandrowski, J., and Raneses, A.: 1995, World Agriculture and Climate Change: Economic Adaptations, United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Washington.Google Scholar
  18. De Freitas, C.R.: 1989, ‘The Hazard Potential of Drought for the Population of the Sahel’, in Clarke, J.I., Curson, P, Kayastha, S.L., and Nag, P. (eds.), Population and Disaster, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  19. De Vries, J.: 1985, ‘Analysis of Historical Climate-society Interaction’, in Kates, R.W., Ausubel, J.H., and Berberian, M. (eds.), Climate Impact Assessment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 273–291.Google Scholar
  20. Denevan, W.: 1983, ‘Adaptation, Variation and cultural Geography’, Professional Geographer 35, 406–412.Google Scholar
  21. Downing, T.E.: 1991, ‘Vulnerability to Hunger in Africa: A Climate Change Perspective’, Global Environmental Change 1, 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Downing, T.E., Gitu, K.W., and Kaman, C.M. (eds.): 1989, Coping with Drought in Kenya: National and Local Strategies, Lynne Rienner, Boulder Colo.Google Scholar
  23. Downing, T.E., Olsthoorn, A.A., and Tol, R.S.J.: 1996, Climate Change and Extreme Events: Altered Risks, Socio-Economic Impacts and Policy Responses, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  24. Easterling, W.E.: 1996, ‘Adapting North American Agriculture to Climate Change in Review’, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 80(1), 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Easterling, W.E., Crosson, P.R., Rosenberg, N.J., McKenney, M.S., Katz, L.A., and Lemon, K.M.: 1993, ‘Agricultural Impacts of and Responses to Climate Change in the Missouri-lowa-Nebraska-Kansas Region, Climatic Change 24(1–2), 23–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fankhauser, S.: 1997, The Costs of Adapting to Climate, Working Paper No. 13, Global Environmental Facility, Washington.Google Scholar
  27. Fankhauser, S. 1996.: ‘The Potential Costs of Climate Change Adaptation’, in Smith, J.B., Bhatti, N., Menzhulin, G., Benioff, R., Budyko, M., Campos, M., Jallow, B., and Rijsberman, F. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 80–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feenstra, J.F., Burton, I., Smith, J., and Tol, R.S.J. (eds.): 1998, Handbook on Methods for Climate change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies, UNEP/ Vrije Universiteit Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  29. Frederick, K.D.: 1997, ‘Adapting to Climate Impacts on the Supply and Demand for Water’, Climatic Change 37, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fukui, H.: 1979, ‘Climatic Variability and Agriculture in Tropical Moist Regions’, in Proceedings of the World elimate Conference, World Meteorological Association Report No. 537, Geneva, pp. 426–479.Google Scholar
  31. Glantz, M.H.: 1996, ‘Forecasting by Analogy: Local Responses to Global climate Change’, in Smith, J.B., Bhatti, N., Menzhulin, G., Benioff, R., Budyko, M., Campos, M., Jallow, B., and Rijsberman, F. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glantz, M. (ed.): 1988, Societal Responses to Climate Change: Forecasting by Analogy, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.Google Scholar
  33. Goklany, I.M.: 1995, ‘Strategies to Enhance Adaptability: Technological Change, Sustainable Growth and Free Trade’, Climatic Change 30, 427–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hardesty, D.L.: 1983, ‘Rethinking Cultural Adaptation’, Professional Geographer 35, 399–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hastenrath, S.: 1995, ‘Recent Advances in Tropical Climate Prediction’, Journal of Climate, 8, 1519–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heathcote, R.L.: 1985, ‘Extreme Event Analysis’, in Kates, R.W., Ausuabel, J.H., and Berberian, M. (eds.), Climate Impact Assessment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 369–401.Google Scholar
  37. Hewitt, K.: 1997, Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters, Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, Essex.Google Scholar
  38. Hewitt, K., and Burton, I.: 1971, The Hazardousness of a Place: A Regional Ecology of Damaging Events, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  39. Houghton, J.T., Filho, L.G.M., Callander, B.A., Harris, N, Kattenberg, A., and Maskell, K.: 1996, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Second Assessment Report of the Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Hulme, M, Raper, S.C.B., and Wigley, T.M.L.: 1995, ‘An Integrated Framework to Address Climate Change (ESCAPE) and Further Developments of the Global and Regional Climate Modules (MAGICC)’, Energy Policy 23(4/5), 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hurd, B., Callaway, J., Kirshen, P., and Smith, J.: 1997, ‘Economic Effects of Climate Change on U.S. Water Resources’, in Mendelsohn, R. and Newmann, J. (eds.), The Impacts of Climate Change on the U.S. Economy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  42. IPCC: 1996, ‘Summary for Policymakers: Scientific-Technical Analyses of Impacts, Adaptations; and Mitigation of Climate Change’, in Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., and Moss, R.H. (eds.), Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  43. Jepma C.J., Asaduzzaman, M., Mintzer, I., Maya, R.S., and Al-Monef, M.: 1996, ‘A Generic Assessment of Response Options’, in Bruce, J.T. et al. (eds.), Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 225–262.Google Scholar
  44. Jodba, N.S.: 1989, ‘Potential Strategies for Adapting to Greenhouse Warming: Perspectives from the Developing World’, in Rosenberg, N.J., Easterling III, W.E., and Crosson, P.R. (eds.), Greenhouse Warming: Abatement and Adaptation, Resources for the Future, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  45. Kane, S., Reilly, J., and Tobey, J.: 1992, ‘A Sensitivity Analysis of the Implications of Climate Change for World Agriculture’, in Reilly, J.M., and Anderson, M. (eds.), Economic Issues in Global Climate Change, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 117–131.Google Scholar
  46. Karl, T.R., and Knight, R.W.: 1998, ‘Secular Trends of Precipitation Amount, Frequency, and Intensity in the United States’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological society 79(2), 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kasperson, R.E., and Dow, K.: 1991, ‘Developmental and geographical equity in global environmental change: A framework for analysis’, Evaluation Review 15, 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kates, R.W.: 1971, ‘Natural Hazard in Human Ecological Perspective: Hypotheses and Models’, Economic Geography 47, 438–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kates, R.W.: 1985, ‘The Interaction of Climate and Society’, in Kates, R.W., Ausubel, J.H., and Berberian, M. (eds.), Climate Impact Assessment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 3–36.Google Scholar
  50. Kates, R. W., Hohenemser, C., and Kasperson, J.X.: 1985, Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.Google Scholar
  51. Klein, R.J.T.: 1998, ‘Towards Better Understanding, Assessment and Funding of Climate adaptation’, Climatic Change 44, 15–19.Google Scholar
  52. Klein, R.J.T., and Nicholls, R.J.: 1999, ‘Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change’, Ambio 28(2): 182–187.Google Scholar
  53. Klein, R.J.T. and Tol, R.S.J.: 1997, Adaptation to Climate Change: Options and Technologies, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  54. Krankina, O.N., Dixon, R.K., Kirilenko, A.P., and Kobak, K.I.: 1997, ‘Global Climate Change Adaptation: Examples from Russian Boreal Forests’, Climatic Change 36, 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lagos, P. and Buizer, J.: 1992, ‘El Niño and Peru: A Nation's Response to Interannual Climate Variability’, in Majumdar, S.K., Fothes, G.S., Millet, E.W., and Schmalz, R.F. (eds.), Natural and Technological Disasters: Causes, Effects and Preventive Measures, The Pennsylvania Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  56. Lawrence, E.: 1995, Henderson's Dictionary of Biological Terms, Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow.Google Scholar
  57. Leemans, R.: 1992, ‘Modelling Ecological and Agricultural Impacts of Global Change on a Global Scale’, Journal of Sci. & Ind. Res 51, 709–724.Google Scholar
  58. Lewandrowski, J. and Brazee,: 1992, ‘Government Farm Programs and Climate Change: A First Look’, in Reilly, J.M. and Anderson, M. (eds.), Economic Issues in Global Climate Change, Westview Press, Boulder, pp 132–147.Google Scholar
  59. MacDonald, G.M., Edwards, T.W.D., Moser, K.A., Pienitz, R., and Smol, J.P.: 1993, ‘Rapid Response of Treeline Vegetation and Lakes to Past Climate Warming’, Nature 361, 243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Magalhaes, A.R.: 1996, ‘Adapting to Climate Variations in Developing Regions: A Planning Framework’, in Smith, J.B., Bhatti, N., Menzhulin, G., Benioff, R., Budyko, M., Campos, M., Jallow, B., and Rijsberman, F. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 44–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Markham, A. and Malcohn, J.: 1996, ‘Biodiversity and Wildlife: Adaptation to Climate Change’, in Smith, J.B., Bhatti, N., Menzhulin, G., Benioff, R., Budyko, M., Campos, M., Jallow, B., and Rijsberman, F. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 384–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mearns, L.O., Katz, R.W., and Schneider, S.H.: 1984, ‘Extreme High Temperature Events: Changes in their Probabilities with Changes in Mean Temperature’, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1601–1613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meyer, W.B., Butzer, K.W., Downing, T.E., Turner II, B.L., Wenzel, G.W., and Wescoat, J.L.: 1998, ‘Reasoning by Analogy’, in Rayner, S. and Malone, E.L. (eds), Human Choice and Climate Change, Volume 3: Tools for Policy Analysis, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 217–289.Google Scholar
  64. Olsthoorn, A.A., Maunder, W.J., and Tol, R.S.J.: 1996, ‘Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific: Impacts on Pacific Island Countries with Particular Reference to Fiji’, in Downing, T.E. et al. (eds.), Climate Change and Extreme Events: Altered Risks, Socio-Economic Impacts and Policy Responses, Institute for Environmental Management, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, pp. 185–208.Google Scholar
  65. O'Riordan, T., and Jordan, A.: 1999, ‘Institutions, Climate change and Cultural theory: Towards a Common Analytical Framework’, Global Environmental Change, 9, 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Parry, M.L.: 1986, ‘Some Implications of Climate Change for Human Development’, in Clark, W.C. and Munn, R.E. (eds.), Sustainable Development of the Biosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 378–07.Google Scholar
  67. Peters, R.L. and Lovejoy, T.E. (eds): 1992, Global Warming and Biological Diversity, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  68. Pimm, S.L.: 1984, ‘The Complexity and Stability of Ecosystems’, Nature, 307(5949), 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rayner, S. and Malone, E.L. (eds): 1998, Human Choice and Climate Change, Volume 3: Tools for Policy Analysis, Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.Google Scholar
  70. Reilly, J, and Schimmelpfennig, D; 1998, ‘Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Learning Portraits of Adaptation to Long-Term Climate Change’, Climatic Change (this issue).Google Scholar
  71. Ribot, J.C., Magalhaes, A.R., and Panagides, S.S.: 1996, Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Social Vulnerability in the Semi-arid Tropics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riebsame, W.E.: 1991, ‘Sustainability of the Great Plains in an Uncertain Climate’, Great Plains Research 1(1), 133–151.Google Scholar
  73. Rose, C. and Hurst, P.: 1991, Can Nature Survive Global Warming, World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  74. Rosenzweig, C., and Parry, M.L.: 1994, ‘Potential Impact of Climate Change on World Food Supply’, Nature 367, 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smit, B. (ed.): 1993, Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change, Environment Canada, Guelph.Google Scholar
  76. Smit, B., McNabb, D., and Smithers, J.: 1996, ‘Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change’, Climatic Change 33, 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smit B., Blain, R., and Keddie, P.: 1997, ‘Corn Hybrid Selection and Climatic Variability: Gambling with Nature?’, The Canadian Geographer 41(4), 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith, J.B., Ragland, S.E., and Pitts, G.J.: 1996, ‘A Process for Evaluating Anticipatory Adaptation Measures for Climate Change’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 92, 229–238.Google Scholar
  79. Smith, J.B.: 1996, ‘Using a Decision Matrix to Assess Climate Change Adaptation’, in Smith, J.B. et al. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith, K.: 1996, Environmental Hazards: Assessing risk and reducing disaster, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  81. Smith, J. and Lenhart, S.S.: 1996, ‘Climate Change Adaptation Policy Options’, Climate Research 6, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smithers, J. and Smit, B.; 1997a, ‘Human Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change’, Global Environmental Change 7(2), 129–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Smithers, J. and Smit, B.: 1997b, ‘Agricultural System Response to Environmental Stress’, in Ilberry, B, Chiotti, Q, and Rickard, T. (eds.), Agricultural Restructuring and Sustainability, CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 167–183.Google Scholar
  84. Sonka, S.T. and Lamb, P.J.: 1987, ‘On Climate Change and Economic Analysis’, Climatic Change 11(3), 291–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sonka, S.T.: 1992, ‘Evaluating Sociocconomic Assessments of the Effect of Climate Change on Agriculture’, in Reilly, J.M. and Anderson, M. (eds.), Economic Issues in Global Climate Change, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 402–413.Google Scholar
  86. Sprengers, S.A., Slager, L.K. and Aiking, H.: 1994, Biodiversity and Climate Change Part 1: Establishment of Ecological Goals for the Climate Convention, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  87. Stakhiv, E.Z.: 1996, ‘Managing Water Resources for Climate Change Adaptation’, in Smith, J.B. et al. (eds.), Adapting to Climate Change: An International Perspective, Springer, New York, pp. 243–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stakhiv, E.: 1993, Evaluation of IPCC Adaptation Strategies, Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Belvoir, VA, draft report.Google Scholar
  89. Titus, J.G.: 1990, ‘Strategies for Adapting to the Greenhouse Effect’, Journal of the American Planning Association 56(3), 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tol, R.S.J., Fankhauser, S., and Smith, J.B.: 1997, The Scope for Adaptation to Climate Change: What Can We Learn from the Literature?, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  91. Tol, R.S.J.: 1996, ‘A Systems View of Weather Disasters’, in Downing, T.E. et al. (eds.), Climate Change and Extreme Events: Altered Risks, Socio-Economic Impacts and Policy Responses, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, pp. 17–33.Google Scholar
  92. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): 1992, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Text, UNEP/WMO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  93. Viscusi, W.K.: 1992, ‘Implications of Global-change Uncertainties: Agricultural and Natural Resource Policies’, in Reilly, J.M. and Anderson, M. (eds.), Economic Issues in Global Climate Change, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 414–424.Google Scholar
  94. Warrick, R.A., Gifford, R.M., and Parry, M.L.: 1986, ‘CO2, Climatic Change and Agriculture’, in Bolin, B., Döös, B.R., Jäger, J., and Warrick, R.A. (eds.), The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change, and Ecosystems, New York, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 393–473.Google Scholar
  95. Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., and Moss, R.H.: 1996, Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  96. Wigley, T.M.: 1985, ‘Impact of Extreme Events’, Nature 316: 106–107.Google Scholar
  97. Yohe, G.W., Neumann, J.E., Marshall, P.B., and Ameden, H.: 1996, ‘The Economic Cost of Greenhouse Induced Sea Level Rise for Developed Property in the United States’, Climatic Change 32(4), 387–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Smit
    • 1
  • Ian Burton
    • 2
  • Richard J.T. Klein
    • 3
  • J. Wandel
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Environmental Adaptation Research Group, Institute for Environmental StudiesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact ResearchPotsdamGermany
  4. 4.Department of GeographyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations