Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 425–446 | Cite as

History of Childhood Maltreatment, Negative Cognitive Styles, and Episodes of Depression in Adulthood

  • Brandon E. Gibb
  • Lauren B. Alloy
  • Lyn Y. Abramson
  • Donna T. Rose
  • Wayne G. Whitehouse
  • Patricia Donovan
  • Michael E. Hogan
  • Judith Cronholm
  • Sandra Tierney
Article

Abstract

Participants at high (HR) and low (LR) cognitive risk for depression, based on the presence versus absence of negative cognitive styles, were followed longitudinally for 2.5 years. Reported levels of childhood emotional, but not physical or sexual, maltreatment were related to levels of hopelessness and episodes of nonendogenous major depression (NE-MD) and hopelessness depression (HD) during the prospective follow-up period. HR participants reported more childhood emotional maltreatment but less childhood physical maltreatment than did LR participants. In support of Beck's (1967, 1987) theory, cognitive risk fully mediated the relation between childhood emotional maltreatment and NE-MD. In support of the hopelessness theory (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989), cognitive risk partially mediated the relation between childhood emotional maltreatment and hopelessness and fully mediated the relation between childhood emotional maltreatment and HD. Additionally, hopelessness partially mediated the relation between cognitive risk and HD.

childhood maltreatment cognitive vulnerability depression 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Alloy L. B., & Metalsky, G. I. (1995). Hopelessness depression. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style (pp. 113–134). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.Google Scholar
  3. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (2000). The Cognitive Style Questionnaire: A measure of the diatheses featured in the hopelessness theory of depression. Manuscript in preparation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  4. Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1999). The Temple- Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) Project: Conceptual background, design, and methods. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 13, 227–262.Google Scholar
  5. Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Rose, D. T., Robinson, M. S., Kim, R. S., & Lapkin, J. B. (2000a). The Temple- Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression (CVD) Project: Lifetime history of Axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 403–418.Google Scholar
  6. Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Murray, L. A., Whitehouse, W. G., & Hogan, M. E. (1997). Self-referent information-processing in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 539–568.Google Scholar
  7. Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Whitehouse, W. G., Hogan, M. E., Panzarella, C., Robinson, M. S., Lapkin, J. B., Rose, D. T., & Donovan, P. (2000b). Prospective incidence of Axis I disorders in individuals at high and low cognitive vulnerability to depression. Manuscript in preparation, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). Themoderator- mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1183.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 5–37.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100.Google Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861–865.Google Scholar
  15. Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., daCosta, G. A., Arkman, D., & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101–117.Google Scholar
  16. Boudewyn, A. R., & Liem, J. H. (1995). Childhood sexual abuse as a precursor to depression and selfdestructive behavior in adulthood. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 445–459.Google Scholar
  17. Braver, M., Bumberry, J., Green, K., & Rawson, R. (1992). Childhood abuse and current psychological functioning in a university counseling center population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 252–257.Google Scholar
  18. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 82–98.Google Scholar
  19. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse:Areview of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–77.Google Scholar
  20. Cicchetti, D. (1989). Maltreatment Classification Interview. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester, Mount Hope Family Center.Google Scholar
  21. Dhaliwal, G. K., Gauzas, L., Antonowicz, D. H., & Ross, R. R. (1996). Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse: Prevalence, sexual abuse characteristics, and long-term effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 619–639.Google Scholar
  22. Dobson, K. S., & Breiter, H. J. (1983). Cognitive assessment of depression: Reliability and validity of three measures. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 107–109.Google Scholar
  23. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. A. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.Google Scholar
  24. Feiring, C., Taska, L., & Lewis, M. (1998). The role of shame and attributional style in children's and adolescents' adaptation to sexual abuse. Child Maltreatment, 3, 129–142.Google Scholar
  25. Gibb, B. E. (2000). Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and negative cognitive styles: A qualitative and quantitative review of the literature. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  26. Gladstone, G., Parker, G., Wilhelm, K., Mitchell, P., & Austin, M. (1999). Characteristics of depressed patients who report childhood sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 431–437.Google Scholar
  27. Gold, E. R. (1986). Long-term effects of sexual victimization in childhood: An attributional approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 471–475.Google Scholar
  28. Gross, A. B., & Keller, H. R. (1992). Long-term consequences of childhood physical and psychological maltreatment. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 171–185.Google Scholar
  29. Haaga, D. F., Dyck, M. J., & Ernst, D. (1991). Empirical status of cognitive theories of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 215–236.Google Scholar
  30. Hart, S. N., & Brassard, M. R. (1987). A major threat to children's mental health: Psychological maltreatment. American Psychologist, 42, 160–165.Google Scholar
  31. Holden, R. R., & Fecken, C. (1988). Test- retest reliability of the hopelessness scale and its items in a university population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 40–43.Google Scholar
  32. Hussey, D. L., Strom, G., & Singer, M. (1992). Male victims of sexual abuse: An analysis of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 9, 491–503.Google Scholar
  33. Joiner, T. E., Jr., & Wagner, K. D. (1995). Attributional style and depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 777–798.Google Scholar
  34. Kaupie, C. A., & Abramson, L. Y. (1999). Validation of a questionnaire to measure developmental history of maltreatment. Unpublished manuscript, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  35. Meng, X., Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1992). Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 172–175.Google Scholar
  36. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal explanations as risk factors for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374.Google Scholar
  37. Peterson, C. R., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–300.Google Scholar
  38. Rich, D. J., Gingerich, K. J., & Rosen, L. A. (1997). Childhood emotional abuse and associated psychopathology in college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 11, 13–28.Google Scholar
  39. Roosa, M. W., Reinholtz, C., & Angelini, P. J. (1999). The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: Comparisons across four ethnic groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27,65–76.Google Scholar
  40. Rose, D. T., & Abramson, L. Y. (1992). Developmental predictors of depressive cognitive style: Research and theory. In D. Cicchetti & S Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium of developmental psychopathology (Vol. IV, pp. 323–349). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  41. Rose, D. T., Abramson, L. Y., Hodulik, C. J., Halberstadt, L., & Leff, G. (1994). Heterogeneity of cognitive style among depressed inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 419–429.Google Scholar
  42. Rose, D. T., Abramson, L. Y., & Kaupie, C. A. (2000). The Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire: A measure of history of emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment. Manuscript in preparation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  43. Silverman, A. B., Reinherz, H. Z., & Giaconia, R. M. (1996). The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 709–723.Google Scholar
  44. Spitzer, R. L., & Endicott, J. (1978). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Change version. New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  45. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robbins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.Google Scholar
  46. Weissman, A., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A preliminary investigation0. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  47. Zuravin, S. J., & Fontanella, C. (1999). The relationship between child sexual abuse and major depression among low-income women: A function of growing up experiences? Child Maltreatment, 4, 3–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brandon E. Gibb
    • 1
  • Lauren B. Alloy
    • 2
  • Lyn Y. Abramson
    • 3
  • Donna T. Rose
    • 3
  • Wayne G. Whitehouse
    • 2
  • Patricia Donovan
    • 3
  • Michael E. Hogan
    • 3
  • Judith Cronholm
    • 2
  • Sandra Tierney
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphia
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadison

Personalised recommendations