Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 119, Issue 1–4, pp 387–420 | Cite as

Effects of Environmental Stress on Forest Crown Condition in Europe. Part IV: Statistical Analysis of Relationships

  • Jaco M. Klap
  • Jan H. Oude Voshaar
  • Wim De VriesEmail author
  • Jan Willem Erisman


Site-specific estimates for various environmentalstress factors were related with measured crowncondition data at a systematic 16 ×: 16 km2 gridover Europe, according to previously statedhypotheses, using a multiple regression approach,including interactions, and lagged effects of stressfactors. Methodological differences among countriesaccounted for >30% of the variation in defoliation.Nevertheless, crown condition was found to varynaturally with tree age, altitude, drought stress and,most likely, also pathogenic fungi and insects.Significant impacts of air pollution (specificallyozone but also NOx, SOx and acid deposition)were found at regional levels in parts of centralEurope, particularly for deciduous species. Impactsseemed less significant for conifers, especially forspruce, but this might be affected by confoundingeffects or strong correlations between (a harsh)climate and (low) atmospheric deposition in the areawhere spruce predominates. National studies indicatethat ozone and acid deposition can have a significanteffect on the defoliation of spruce as well. Weconclude that while forest condition varies naturally,continued emissions will contribute further to forestdecline in the long term.

acid deposition air pollution correlative study critical load defoliation Fagus sylvatica forest vitality meteorological stress Picea abies Pinus sylvestris Quercus ilex Quercus petraea Quercus robur 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaco M. Klap
    • 1
  • Jan H. Oude Voshaar
    • 1
  • Wim De Vries
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Willem Erisman
    • 2
  1. 1.DLO – Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO)WageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Energy Centre Netherlands (ECN)PettenThe Netherlands

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