Toxic and Sublethal Effects of Ammonium Chloride on a Freshwater Fish Oreochromis mossambicus

Abstract

The effects of ammonium chloride on survival and feeding energetics of the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus were studied. At a concentration of 600 mg L-1 ammonium chloride, 100% mortality was observed within 24 h; no mortality occurred at 400 mg L-1 within 96 h; Concentration of 450 mg L-1 ammonium chloride was found as median lethal concentration at 96 h exposure. Rearing the fish in increasing sublethal concentrations of ammonium chloride, it was found that the feeding rate decreased from 20.309 ± 0.506 mg g live fish-1 day-1 (mg g-1 d-1 (control) to 11.594 ± 0.479 mg g-1 d-1 at the highest sublethal concentration (100 mg L-1. Growth rate was drastically reduced.

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Felista Rani, E., Elumalai, M. & Balasubramanian, M.P. Toxic and Sublethal Effects of Ammonium Chloride on a Freshwater Fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 104, 1–8 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004941825193

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  • ammonium chloride
  • conversion efficiency
  • feeding rate
  • growth
  • Oreochromis mossambicus
  • survival