Recent declines in carpooling among American commuters are analyzed using data derived from the US Census of Population, the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study, and the American Home Survey. The most important factors associated with recent declines in carpooling to and from work in the US include increasing household vehicle availability, falling real marginal fuel costs, and higher average educational attainments among commuters. Age, sex, family income, household lifecycle characteristics, urban form, racial diversity and relative poverty appear to have had smaller effects on observed changes in carpooling for the work trip.
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Ferguson, E. The rise and fall of the American carpool: 1970–1990. Transportation 24, 349–376 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004928012320
- family income
- fuel economy
- gasoline prices
- vehicle availability