Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 34, Issue 13, pp 3213–3219 | Cite as

Preparation of nanostructured tin oxide using a sol-gel process based on tin tetrachloride and ethylene glycol

  • G. Zhang
  • M. Liu


A sol-gel process starting with tin tetrachloride and ethylene glycol as precursors, has been successfully used to prepare nanostructured tin oxide powders. The molecular structure evolution during the process has been identified using infrared spectroscopy and the underlying reaction mechanisms of the sol-gel process are proposed. Results suggest that the -OHCH2CH2OH- prevent Cl ions from access to tin ions due to steric effect and hence increase the stability of the sol solution. Ethylene glycol functions not only as a complexion agent to form a polymer network but also as a spacer to modulate the distance between metal ions, preventing metal oxide particles from aggregation during earlier stages of organics removal. Further, conversion of xerogel to tin oxide are studied using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. It is found that cassiterite begins to form at a temperature as low as 250 °C when organics start to burn off. However, nanocrystalline tin oxide powders are formed only after the chemically bonded hydroxyl groups are completely removed at about 600 °C.


Metal Oxide Thermogravimetric Analysis Oxide Particle Polymer Network Steric Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    N. Batta,L. Cinquegrani,E. Mugno,A. Tagliente S. Pizzini,Sensors and Actuators B 6( 1992) 253.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. B. Barbi,J. S. Blanco, M. BAROFFIOJ. Agapito F. J. GUTIERREZibid. B 18/19( 1994) 93.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Wakabayashi,Y. Kamiya N. Ohta,Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 40( 1967) 2127.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Ono,T. Yamanaka M. Komiyama,J. Catal. 109( 1988) 423.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. C. Mehrotra,J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 121( 1990) 1.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Orel,U. Lavvencic-stangar,Z. Crnjakorel,P. Bukorec M. Kosec,ibid. 167( 1994) 272.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. S. Hiratsuka,S. H. Pulcinelli C. V. SANTILLIibid. 121( 1990) 76.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. B. Lim S. OHSensors and Actuators B 30( 1996) 223.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. S. Hiratsuka,C. V. Snatilli,D. V. Silva S. H. Pulcinelli,J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147/148( 1992) 67.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. P. Chatelon,C. Terrier,E. Bernstein,R. Berjoan J. A. Roger,Thin Solid Films 247( 1994) 162.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. F. Goodman S. J. Gregg,J. Chem. Soc. 237( 1960) 1162.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O. Yamamoto T. Sasamot,J. Mater. Res. 7( 1992) 2488.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. C. Giuntini,W. Granier,T. V. Zanchetta A. Taha,J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9( 1990) 1383.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. D. Cullity, "Element of X-ray Diffraction," 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 1978) p. 102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Zhang
    • 1
  • M. Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations