Ackermann, E. (1991). From decontextualized to situated knowledge: Revisiting Piaget's water-level experiment, in I. Harel & S. Papert, eds., Constructionism (pp. 269–294). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
APA (1992). Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Anderson, J.R. & Reder, L.M. (1979). An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing, in L. S. Cermak & F.I.M. Craik, eds., Levels of Processing in Human Memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Anderson, R., Spiro, R. & Anderson, M. (1978). Schemata as scaffolding for the representation of connected discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15: 433–440.
Bagley, C. & Hunter, B. (1992). Restructuring, constructivism, and technology: Forging a new relationship. Educational Technology 32(7): 22–27.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist 37: 122–147.
Belmont, J. (1989). Cognitive strategies and strategic learning. American Psychologist 37: 122–147.
Bereiter, C. (1991). Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules. Educational Researcher 20(3): 2–9.
Bransford, J., Franks, J., Vye, N. & Sherwood, R. (1989). New approaches to instruction: Because wisdom can't be told, in S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony, eds., Similarity and Analogical Reasoning (pp. 470–497). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J.S. (1985). Process versus product: A perspective on tools for communal and informal electronic learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research 1: 179–201.
Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher 18(1): 32–41.
Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (1993). Stolen knowledge. Educational Technology 33(3): 10–15.
Choi, J-I. & Hannafin, M.J. (1995). Situated cognition and learning environments: Roles, structures, and implications for design. Educational Technology Research and Development 43(2): 53–69.
Chung, J. & Reigeluth, C. (1992). Instructional prescriptions for learner control. Educational Technology 32(10): 14–20.
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1991). Technology and the design of generative learning environments. Educational Technology 31(5): 34–40.
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1992). Emerging technologies, ISD, and learning environments: Critical perspectives. Educational Technology Research and Development 40(1): 65–80.
Collins, A., Brown, J.S. & Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics, in L.B. Resnick, ed., Knowing, Learning and Instruction (pp. 453–494). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Craik, F.I.M. & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11: 671–684.
Craik, F.I.M. & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104: 268–294.
Crane, G. & Mylonas, E. (1988). The Perseus Project: An interactive curriculum on classical Greek civilization. Educational Technology 28(11): 25–32.
Cunningham, D.J. (1987). Outline of an education semiotic. The American Journal of Semiotics 5(2): 201–216.
Derry, S. & Murphy, D. (1986). Designing systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of Educational Research 56: 1–39.
Dewey, J. (1933). How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Macmillan.
Dick, W. (1991). An instructional designer's view of constructivism. Educational Technology 31(5): 41–44.
Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1990). The Systematic Design of Instruction (3rd Ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, and Company.
diSessa, A. (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science 6: 37–75.
diSessa, A. & White, B. (1982). Learning physics from a dynaturtle. Byte 7: 324.
Driver & Scanlon (1988). Conceptual change in science. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning (5): 25–36.
Edwards, L.D. (1995). The design and analysis of a mathematical microworld. Journal of Educational Computing Research 12(1): 77–94.
Gagné, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Gagné, R., Briggs, L. & Wager, W. (1988). Principles of Instructional Design (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Gagné, R. & Merrill, M.D. (1990). Integrative goals for instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development 38: 23–30.
Glaser, R. (1976). Components of a psychology of instruction: Toward a science of design. Review of Educational Research 46: 1–24.
Guba, E.G. (1990). The alternative paradigm dialog, in E. Guba, ed., The Paradigm Dialog (pp. 17–27). Newbury Park: Sage.
Hannafin, K.M. & Grumelli, M. (1993, February). Focusing Pedagogy on Problem Solving: Modeling Problem-Solving Strategies in an Undergraduate Humanities Course. Presented at the National Conference on Successful College Teaching and Administration, Orlando, FL.
Hannafin, M.J. (1989). Interaction strategies and emerging instructional technologies: Psychological perspectives. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication 18: 167–179.
Hannafin, M.J. (1992). Emerging technologies, ISD, and learning environments: Critical perspectives. Educational Technology Research and Development 40(1): 49–63.
Hannafin, M.J. (1995). Open-ended learning environments: Foundations, assumptions, and implications for automated design, in R. Tennyson, ed., Perspectives on Automating Instructional Design (pp. 101–129). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hannafin, M.J., Hall, C., Land, S.M. & Hill, J.R. (1994). Learning in open-ended environments: Assumptions, methods, and implications. Educational Technology 34(8): 48–55.
Hannafin, M.J., Hannafin, K.M., Hooper, S.R., Rieber, L.P. & Kini, A. (1996). Research on and research with emerging technologies, in D. Jonassen, ed., Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology (pp. 378–402). New York: Scholastic.
Hannafin, M.J., Hill, J. & Land, S. (in press). Student-centered learning and interactive multimedia: Status, issues, and implications. Contemporary Education.
Hannafin, M.J. & Rieber, L.P. (1989a). Psychological foundations of instructional design for emerging computer-based instructional technologies: Part I. Educational Technology Research and Development 37: 91–101.
Hannafin, M.J. & Rieber, L.P. (1989b). Psychological foundations of instructional design for emerging computer-based instructional technologies: Part II. Educational Technology Research and Development 37: 102–114.
Harel, I. & Papert, S. (1991). Software design as a learning environment, in I. Harel & S. Papert, eds., Constructionism (pp. 41–84). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Hooper, S. & Hannafin, M.J. (1991). Psychological perspectives on emerging instructional technologies: A critical analysis. Educational Psychologist 26: 69–95.
Jonassen, D. (1991). Objectivism versus constructivism: Do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research and Development 39: 5–14.
Jonassen, D. (1992). What are cognitive tools? in P. Kommers & H. Mandl, eds., Cognitive Tools for Learning. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Jonassen, D. (1996). Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical Thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
Jonassen, D. & Reeves, T. (1996). Learning with technology: Using computers as cognitive tools, in D. Jonassen, ed., Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology (pp. 693–719). New York: Scholastic.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. & Inhelder, B. (1975). If you want to get ahead, get a theory. Cognition 3(3): 195–212.
Kember, D. & Murphy, D. (1990). Alternative new directions for instructional design. Educational Technology 30(8): 42–47.
Klatzky, R. (1975). Human Memory: Structures and Processes. San Francisco: Freeman.
Kozma, R. B. (1987). The implications of cognitive psychology for computer-based learning tools. Educational Technology 27(11): 20–25.
Land, S.M. & Hannafin, M.J. (1996). A conceptual framework for the development of theories-in-action with open-learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development 44(3): 37–53.
Land, S.M. & Hannafin, M.J. (in press). Patterns of understanding with open-ended learning environments: A qualitative study. Educational Technology Research and Development.
Language Development and Hypermedia Research Group (1992). Bubble Dialogue: A new tool for instruction and assessment. Educational Technology Research and Development 40(2): 59–67.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. New York: Cambridge.
Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivistic values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new mindset. Educational Technology Research and Development 41(3): 4–16.
Lebow D. & Johnson, D. (1993). Integrating emerging technologies into fitness education. FAHPERD Journal Fall: 38–42.
Levin, J. & Waugh, M. (1987). Educational simulations, tools, games, and microworlds: Computer-based environments for learning. International Journal of Educational Research 12(1): 71–79.
Lee, O., Eichinger, D., Anderson, C., Berkheimer, G. & Blakeslee, T. (1993). Changing middle school students' conceptions of matter and molecules. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(3): 249–270.
Lewis, E., Stern, J. & Linn, M. (1993). The effect of computer simulations on introductory thermodynamics understanding. Educational Technology 28(11): 8–12.
Li, Z. & Merrill, M. (1990). Transaction shells: A new apprach to courseware authoring. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 23(1): 72–86.
Linn, M. & Muilenburg, L. (1996). Creating lifelong science learners: What models form a firm foundation? Educational Researcher 25(5): 18–24.
Marchionin, G. (1988). Hypermedia and learning: Freedom and chaos. Educational Technology 33(1): 45–58.
Mayer, R.E. (1984). Aids to text comprehension. Educational Psychologist 19: 30–42.
Mayer, R.E. (1989). Models for understanding. Review of Educational Research 59: 43–64.
McCaslin, M. & Good, T. (1992). Compliant cognition: The misalliance of management and instructional goals in current school reform. Educational Researcher 21(3): 4–17.
McDermott, L. (1984). Research on conceptual understanding in mechanics. Physics Today 37: 24–32.
Merrill, M.D., Li, Z. & Jones, M. (1990a). Limitations of first generation instructional design. Educational Technology 30(1): 7–11.
Merrill, M.D., Li, Z. & Jones, M. (1990b). The second generation instructional design research program. Educational Technology 30(3): 26–31.
Miller, G. (1956). Information and memory. Scientific American 8: 28–32.
National Science Teachers' Association (1993). NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation: An NSTA Position Statement. Washington, DC: National Science Teachers' Association.
Novak, J. & Musonda, D. (1991). A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning. American Educational Research Journal 28(1): 117–153.
Olson, J. (1988). Schoolworlds/Microworlds: Computers and the Culture of the Classroom. New York: Pergammon Press.
Palincsar, A. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction 1(2): 117–175.
Papert, S. (1993a). The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Papert, S. (1993b). Mindstorms (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Pea, R.D., (1991). Learning through multimedia. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications 7: 58–66.
Pea, R.D., (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education, in G. Salomon's, ed., Distributed Intelligence (pp. 47–87). New York: Cambridge.
Perkins, D. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage? Educational Technology 31(5): 18–23.
Perkins, D. (1993). Person-plus: A distributed view of thinking and learning, in G. Salomon's, ed., Distributed Intelligence (pp. 89–109). New York: Cambridge.
Perkins, D. & Salomon, G. (1989). Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educational Researcher 18(1): 16–25.
Perkins, D. & Simmons, R. (1988). Patterns of misunderstanding: An integrative model for science, math, and programming. Review of Educational Research 58: 303–326.
Phillips, D.C. (1995). The good, the bad, and the ugly: The many faces of constructivism. Educational Researcher 24(7): 5–12.
Piaget, J. (1952). The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International University Press.
Reigeluth, C.M. (1989). Educational technology at the crossroads: New mindsets and new directions. Educational Technology Research and Development 37(1): 67–80.
Reigeluth, C.M. (1996). A new paradigm of ISD? Educational Technology 36(5): 13–20.
Rieber, L.P. (1992). Computer-based microworlds: A bridge between constructivism and direct instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development 40(1): 93–106.
Roth, W.M. & Roychoudhury, A. (1993). The development of science process skills in authentic contexts. Journal in Research in Science Teaching 30(2): 127–152.
Salomon, G. (1979). Interaction of Media, Cognition, and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Salomon, G. (1986). Information technologies: What you see is not (always) what you get. Educational Psychologist 20: 207–216.
Salomon, G., Globerson, T. & Guterman, E. (1989). The computer as a zone of proximal development: Internalizing reading-related metacognitions froma reading partner. Journal of Educational Psychology 81(4): 620–627.
Salomon, G., Perkins, D. & Globerson, T. (1991). Partners in cognition: Extending human intelligence with intelligent technologies. Educational Researcher 4: 2–8.
Scardamalia, M. & Bereiter, C. (1985). Fostering the development of self-regulation in children's knowledge processing, in S.F. Chipman, J.W. Segal & R. Glaser, eds., Thinking and Learning Skills: Research and Open Questions (pp. 563–577). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Scardamalia, M., Bereiter, C., McLean, R., Swallow, J. & Woodruff, E. (1989). Computer-supported intentional learning environments. Journal of Educational Computing Research 5: 51–68.
Schön, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Schwartz, J. & Yerushalmy, M. (1987). The Geometric Supposer: Using microcomputers to restore invention to the learning of mathematics, in D. Perkins, J. Lockhead & J. Bishop, eds., Thinking: Proceedings of the Second International Conference (pp. 525–536). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shotsberger, P. (1996). Instructional uses of the World Wide Web: Exemplars and precautions. Educational Technology 36(2): 47–50.
Spiro, R., Feltovich, P., Jacobson, M. & Coulson, R. (1991). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Educational Technology 5: 24–33.
Spiro, R. & Jengh, J. (1990). Cognitive flexibility, random access instruction, and hypertext: Theory and technology for non-linear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter, in D. Nix and R. Spiro, eds., Cognition, Education, and Multimedia: Exploring Ideas in High Technology (pp. 163–205). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Steinberg, E. (1977). Review of student control in computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 3: 84–90.
Steinberg, E. (1989). Cognition and learner control: A literature review, 1977–1988. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 16: 117–121.
Strommen, E. & Lincoln, B. (1992). Constructivism, technology, and the future of classroom learning. Education and Urban Society 24: 466–476.
Thurber, B.D., Macy, G. & Pope, J. (1991). The book, the computer, and the humanities. T.H.E. Journal 8: 57–61.
Tobin, K. & Dawson, G. (1992). Constraints to curriculum reform: Teachers and the myths of schooling. Educational Technology Research and Development 40(1): 81–92.
Trollip, S.R. & Lippert, R.C. (1987). Constructing knowledge bases: A promising instructional tool. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 14(2): 44–48.
Twigger, D., Byard, M., Draper, S., Driver, R., Hartley, R., Hennessy, S., Mallen, C., Mohamed, R., O'Malley, C., O'shea, T. & Scanlon, E. (1991). The ‘conceptual change in science’ project. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning 7: 144–155.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
White, B. & Horwitz, P. (1987). ThinkerTools: Enabling Children to Understand Physical Laws. Cambridge, MA: BBN Laboratories.
Whitehead, A.N. (1929). The Aims of Education. New York: MacMillan.
Wilensky, U. (1991). Abstract meditations on the concrete and concrete implications for mathematics education, in I. Harel & S. Papert, eds., Constructionism (pp. 193–203). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Winn, W. (1993). Instructional design and situated learning: Paradox or partnership? Educational Technology 3: 16–20.
Yankelovich, N., Haan, B., Meyrowitz, N. & Drucker, S. (1988). Intermedia: The concept and the construction of a seamless information environment. Computer 21(1): 81–96.
Young, M. (1993). Instructional design for situated learning. Educational Technology Research and Development 41(1): 43–58.
Young, M. & McNeese, M. (1995). A situated cognition approach to problem solving, in J. Flach, P. Hancock & K. Vicente, eds., The Ecology of Human-Machine Systems. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.