Skip to main content

Sexual Orientation of Female-to-Male Transsexuals: A Comparison of Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Types

Abstract

Homosexual and nonhomosexual (relative to genetic sex) female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) were compared on a number of theoretically or empirically derived variables. Compared to nonhomosexual FTMs, homosexual FTMs reported greater childhood gender nonconformity, preferred more feminine partners, experienced greater sexual rather than emotional jealousy, were more sexually assertive, had more sexual partners, had a greater desire for phalloplasty, and had more interest in visual sexual stimuli. Homosexual and nonhomosexual FTMs did not differ in their overall desire for masculinizing body modifications, adult gender identity, or importance of partner social status, attractiveness, or youth. These findings indicate that FTMs are not a homogeneous group and vary in ways that may be useful in understanding the relation between sexual orientation and gender identity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., APA, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bell, A. P., Weinberg, M. S., and Hammersmith, S. K. (1981). Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women, Alfred C. Kinsey Institute of Sex Research, Bloomington, IN.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bailey, J. M., and Zucker, K. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation:Aconceptual analysis and quantitative review. Dev. Psychol. 31(1): 43-55.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bailey, J. M., Gaulin, S., Agyei, Y., and Gladue, B. A. (1994). Effects of sexual orientation on evolutionarily relevant aspects of mating psychology. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 66(6): 1081-1093.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bailey, J. M., Kim, P., Hills, A., and Linsenmeier, J. A. W. (1997). Butch, femme, or straight-acting? Partner preferences of gay men and lesbians. J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 73(5): 960-973.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bailey, J. M., Finkel, E., Blackwelder, K., and Bailey, T. (1999). Masculinity, femininity and sexual orientation (in preparation).

  7. Blanchard, R. (1989). The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias. Arch. Sex. Behav. 18(4): 315-334.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Blanchard, R. (1990). Gender identity disorders in adult women. In Blanchard, R., Steiner, B.W., et al. (eds.), Clinical Management of Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adults. The Clinical Practice Series, No. 14, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp. 79-91.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Blanchard, R., and Freund, K. (1983). Measuring masculine gender identity in females. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51(2): 205-214.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L., and Steiner, B. W. (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. Arch. Sex. Behav. 16(2): 139-152.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Buss, D. M., Larsen, R. J., Westen, D., and Semmelroth, J. (1992). Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychol. Sci. 3: 251-255.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Clare, D., and Tully, B. (1989). Transhomosexuality or the dissociation of sexual orientation and sex object choice. Arch. Sex. Behav. 18(6): 531-536.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Coleman, E., and Bockting, W. U. (1989). Heterosexual prior to sex reassignment surgery, homosexual afterwards. J. Psychol. Hum. Sex. 1(2): 69-81.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Coleman, E., Bockting, W. O., and Gooren, L. (1993). Homosexual and bisexual identity in sexreassigned female-to-male transsexuals. Arch. Sex. Behav. 22(1): 37-50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Devor, H. (1993). Sexual orientation identities, attractions, and practices of female-to-male transsexuals. J. Sex Res. 30(4): 303-315.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Devor, H. (1997). FTM: Female-to-Male Transsexuals in Society, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dickey, R., and Stephens, J. (1995). Female-to-male transsexualism, heterosexual types: Two cases. Arch. Sex. Behav. 24(4): 439-445.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Ehrhardt, A., Gridanti, G., and McCauley, E. A. (1979). Female-to-male transsexuals compared to lesbians: Behavioral patterns of childhood and adolescent development. Arch. Sex. Behav. 8(6): 481-490.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Fleming, M. Z., MacGowan, B. R., and Salt, P. (1984). Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: Self and spouse ratings on the PAQ. Arch. Sex. Behav. 13(1): 51-57.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Fleming, M., MacGowan, B., and Costos, D. (1985). The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals. Arch. Sex. Behav. 14(1): 47-55.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Freund, K. (1990). Courtship disorder. In Marshall, W. L., Laws, D. R., et al. (eds.), Handbook of Sexual Assault: Issues, Theories, and Treatment of the Offender, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 195-207.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Futterweit, W., Weiss, R. A., and Fagerstrom, R. M. (1986). Endocrine evaluation of forty femaleto-male transsexuals: Increase frequency of polycystic ovarian disease in female transsexualism. Arch. Sex. Behav. 15(1): 69-78.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Hawkins, R. O. (1990). The relationship between culture, personality, and sexual jealousy in men in heterosexual and homosexual relationships. J. Homosex. 19: 67-84.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., and Gebhard, P. H. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Saunders, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Money, J., and Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972). Man and Woman, Boy and Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Money, J., and Schwartz, M. (1976). Fetal androgens in the early treated adrenogenital syndrome of 46 XX hermaphroditism: Influence on assertive and aggressive types of behavior. Aggress. Behav. 2(1): 19-30.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Money, J., Schwartz, M., and Lewis, V. G. (1984). Adult erotosexual status and fetal hormone masculinization and demasculinization: 46, XX congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia and 46, XY androgen-insensitivity syndrome compared. Psychoneuroendocrinology 9: 405-414.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Newton, E., and Walton, S. (1984). The misunderstanding: Toward a more precise sexual vocabulary. In Vance, C. (ed.), Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Boston, pp. 242-250.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Pillard, R. C. (1991). Masculinity and femininity in homosexuality: "Inversion" revisited. In Gonsiorek, J. D.W. J. C. (ed.), Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy, Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 32-43.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Quinsey, V. L., and Lalumiere, M. L. (1995). Evolutionary perspectives on sexual offending. Sex. Abuse J. Res. Treat. 7(4): 301-315.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Roback, H. B., and Lothstein, L. M. (1986). The female mid-life sex change applicant: A comparison with younger female transsexuals and older male sex change applicants. Arch. Sex. Behav. 15(5): 401-415.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Singh, D., Vidaurri, M., Zambarano, R. J., and Dabbs, J. M. Jr. (1999). Lesbian erotic role identifi-cation: Behavioral, morphological, and hormonal correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 76: 1035-1049.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Steiner, B. W., and Bernstein, S. M. (1981). Female-to-male transsexuals and their partners. Can. J. Psychiatry 26: 178-182.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Symons, D. (1979). The Evolution of Human Sexuality, Oxford University Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chivers, M.L., Bailey, J.M. Sexual Orientation of Female-to-Male Transsexuals: A Comparison of Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Types. Arch Sex Behav 29, 259–278 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1001915530479

Download citation

  • transsexual
  • female-to-male
  • sexual orientation
  • gender identity
  • mating psychology