Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 35–66 | Cite as

The Evolution of Sex Differences in Language, Sexuality, and Visual–Spatial Skills

  • R. Joseph
Article

Abstract

The evolutionary neurological and physical foundations for human sex differences in language, sexuality, and visual spatial skills are detailed and primate and human studies are reviewed. Trends in the division of labor were established early in evolution and became amplified with the emergence of the “big brained” Homo erectus. A bigger brain necessitated a size increase in the birth canal and female pelvis. These and other physical changes, e.g., the swelling of the breasts and buttocks, may have paralleled the evolution of full-time sexual receptivity, the establishment of the home base, and exaggerated sex differences in the division of labor (hunting vs. gathering), which in turn promoted innate sex differences in visual spatial vs. language skills. For example, female primates produce more social and emotional vocalizations and engage in more tool use and gathering activities, whereas males tend to hunt and kill. Similar labor divisions are evident over the course of human evolution. “Woman's work” such as child rearing, gathering, and domestic tool construction and manipulation contributed to the functional evolution of Broca's speech area and the angular gyrus—which injects temporal sequences and complex concepts into the stream of language and thought. These activities gave rise, therefore, to a female superiority in grammatical (temporal sequential) vocabulary-rich language. Hunting as a way of life does not require speech but requires excellent visual–spatial skills and, thus, contributed to a male visual–spatial superiority and sex difference in the brain. Over the course of evolution males acquired modern human speech through genetic inheritance and because they had mothers who taught them language.

evolution sex differences language visual spatial skills Homo erectus Cro-Magnon inferior parietal lobe Broca's area 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Aboitiz, F., and Garcia V. A. (1997). The evolutionary origin of the language areas of the brain. A neuroanatomical perspective. Brain Res.Rev. 25: 381–396.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. S., and Witig, B. A. (1969). Attachment and Exploratory Behavior of One Year Olds in a Strange Situation, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, M. (1996). Early lexical development. In Fletcher, P., and MacWhinney, B. (eds.), The Handbook of Child Language, Blackwell, New York, pp. 363–392.Google Scholar
  4. Bayart, F., Hayashi, K. T., Faull, K. F., Barchas, J. D., and Levine, S. (1990). Influence of maternal proximity on behavioral and physiological responses to separation in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Behav.Neurosci. 104: 98–107.Google Scholar
  5. Bayley, N. (1968). Behavioral correlates of mental growth. Am.Psychol.23: 1–17.Google Scholar
  6. Beach, F. (1965). Sex and Behavior, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Beatty, W. W. (1992). Gonadal hormones and sex differences in nonreproductive behaviors. In Gerall, A. A., Moltz, H., and Ward, I. L. (eds.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol. 11.Sexual Differentiation, Plenum, New York, pp. 85–128.Google Scholar
  8. Belsky, J., Gilstrap, B., and Rovine, M. (1984).The Pennsylvania infant and family development project. I. Child Dev. 55: 692–705.Google Scholar
  9. Benbow, C. P., and Benbow, R. M. (1984). Biological correlates of high mathematical reasoning ability. In De Vries, G. J., De Bruin, J. P. C., Uylings, H. B. M., and Corner, M. A. (eds.), Progress in Brain Research, Vol.61.Sex Differences in the Brain, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 469–490.Google Scholar
  10. Berman, P. (1983). Children's nurturance to younger children. Soc.Res.Child Dev. 27: 33–67.Google Scholar
  11. Berman, P., and Goodman,W. (1984). Age and sex differences in childrens responses to babies. Child Dev. 55: 1071–1077.Google Scholar
  12. Blakemore, J. E. O. (1981). Age and sex differences in interactions with a human infant. Child Dev. 52: 386–388.Google Scholar
  13. Blakemore, J. E. O. (1985). Interaction with a baby by young adults. Sex Roles 13: 405–411.Google Scholar
  14. Blakemore, J. E. O. (1990). Children's nurturant interactions with their infant siblings. Sex Roles 22: 43–57.Google Scholar
  15. Blakemore, J. E. O., Baumgardner, S. R., and Keniston, A. H. (1988). Male and female nurturing. Sex Roles 18: 449–459.Google Scholar
  16. Bradshaw, J. L., and Rogers, L. J. (1992). The Evolution of Lateral Asymmetries, Language, Tool Use, and Intellect, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  17. Brend, R. (1975). Male-female intonation patterns in American English. In Thorne, B., and Henley, N. (eds.), Language and Sex, Newbury House, Boston.Google Scholar
  18. Brody, L. (1985). Gender differences in emotional develoment. A review of theories and research. In Steward, A., and Lyko, M. (eds.), Gender and Personality, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  19. Broverman, D. M., Vogel, W., Klaiber, E. L., Majcher, D., Shead, D., and Paul, V. (1968). Roles of activation and inhibition in sex differences in cognitive abilities. Psychol.Rev. 48: 328–331.Google Scholar
  20. Buck, R. (1977). Nonverbal communication of affect in preschool children. J.Personal.Soc.Psychol. 35: 225–236.Google Scholar
  21. Buck, R. (1984). The Communication of Emotion, Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Buck, R., Miller, R., and Caul,W. (1974). Sex, personality and physiological variables in communication of affect via facial expressions. J.Personal.Soc.Psychol. 30: 587–596.Google Scholar
  23. Buck, R., Baron, R., and Barrette, D. (1982). The temporal organization of spontaneous nonverbal expression. J.Personal.Soc.Psychol. 42: 506–517.Google Scholar
  24. Burton, L. A., and Levy, J. (1989). Sex differences in the lateralized processing of facial emotion. Brain Cogn. 11: 210–228.Google Scholar
  25. Bygott, J. D. (1979). Agonistic behviour, dominance, and social structure in wild chimpanzees. In Hamburg, D. A., and McGown, E. R. (eds.), The Great Apes, Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell, C. C. (1985). Human Evolution, Aldine, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Card, A. L., Jackson, L. A., Stollak, G. E., and Ialongo, N. S. (1986). Gender role and person-perception accuracy. Sex Roles 15: 159–171.Google Scholar
  28. Carpenter, C. R. (1942). Sexual behavior of the free ranging rhesus monkey. J.Comp.Psychol. 33: 113–162.Google Scholar
  29. Chauvet, J.-M., Deschamps, E. B., and Hillaire, C. (1996). Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave, H. N. Abrams, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Clark, G. (1967). The Stone Age Hunters, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Clark, J. G. D. (1952). Prehistoric Europe: The Economic Basis, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  32. Clark, J. D., and Harris, J.W. K. (1985). Fire and its role in early hominid lifeways. Afr.Archaeol.Rev. 3: 3–27.Google Scholar
  33. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1978). And daddy makes three. The father's impact on the mother and young child. Child Dev. 44: 466–478.Google Scholar
  34. Clayton, D. E. (1932). A comparative study of the non-nervous elements in the nervous system of invertebrates. J.Entomol.Zool. 24: 3–22.Google Scholar
  35. Coleman, R. (1971). Male and female voice quality and its relationship to vowel formant frequencies. J.Speech Hear.Res. 14: 123–133.Google Scholar
  36. Comas, J. (1960). Manual of Physical Anthropology, Thomas, Chicago.Google Scholar
  37. Conroy, G. C. (1998). Endocranial capacity in an early hominid cranium from Sterkfontein South Africa. Science 280: 1730–1732.Google Scholar
  38. Cook, L. S., Darling, J. R., Voigt, L. F., deHart, P. M., Malone, K. E., Stanford, J. L., Weiss, N. S., Brinton, L. A., Gammon, M. D., and Brogan, D. (1997). Characteristics of women with and without breast augmentation. JAMA 277: 1612–1617.Google Scholar
  39. Cooper, R. P., and Aslin, R. N. (1990). Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Dev. 61: 1584–1595.Google Scholar
  40. Corballis M. C., and Beale, I. L. (1983). The Ambivalent Mind: The Neuropsychology of Left and Right, Nelson-Hall, Chicago.Google Scholar
  41. Corina, D. P., Poizner, H., and Bellugi, U. (1992).Dissociation between linguistic and nonlinguistic gestural systems: A case for compositionality. Brain Lang. 43: 414–447.Google Scholar
  42. Cornford, J. M. (1986). Specialized resharpening techniques and evidence of handedness. In Callow, P., and Cornford, J. M. (eds.), Excavations, Geo Books, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Cross, H. A., and Harlow, H. F. (1965). Prolonged and progressive effect of partial isolation on the behavior of macaque monkeys. J.Exp.Res.Person. 1: 39–49.Google Scholar
  44. Dahlberg, F. (1981). Woman the Gatherer, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  45. Dart (1949). The predatory implemental technique of Australopithecus. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 7: 1–38.Google Scholar
  46. Dawson, J. L. M., Cheung, Y. M., and Lau, R. T. S. (1975). Developmental effects of neonatal sex hormones on spatial and activity skills in the white rat. Biol.Psychiatry 3: 213–229.Google Scholar
  47. Day,M.H. (1982). TheHomoerectus pelvis: Punctuation or gradualism. Proc.1st Congr.Int.Paleontol.Hum. 1: 411–421.Google Scholar
  48. Day, M. H. (1996). Guide to Fossil Man, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  49. DeRenzi, E., and Lucchetti, F. (1988). Ideational apraxia. Brain 111: 1173–1185.Google Scholar
  50. Devore, I. (1964). Primate behavior. In Tax, S. (ed.), Horizons of Anthropology, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  51. Devore, I. (1977). Male dominance and mating behavior in baboons. In Beach, F. A. (ed.), Sex and Behavior, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Edelsky, C. (1979). Question intonation and sex role. Lang.Soc. 8: 15–32.Google Scholar
  53. Ehrhardt, A. K., and Baker, W. W. (1974). Fetal angrodgens, Human central nervous system differentation and behavior sex differences. In Freidman R. C., Richart, and VandeWiele (eds.), Sex Differences in Behavior, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., and Miller, P. A. (1989). Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior. J.Person.Soc.Psychol. 57: 55–66.Google Scholar
  55. Elia, I. (1988). The Female Animal, Holt, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Erwin, J. (1975). Rhesus monkey vocal sounds. In Bourne, G. (ed.), The Rhesus Monkey, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Fedigan, L. (1992). Primates and Paradigms: Sex Roles and Social Bonds, Elden Press, Montreal.Google Scholar
  58. Fernald, A. (1991). Prosody in speech to children: Prelinguistic and linguistic functions. In Vasta, R. (ed.), Annals of Child Development, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  59. Fernald, A. (1992). Meaningful melodies in mother's speech to infants. In Papousek, H., Jurgens, U., and Paplousek, M. (eds.), Origins and Development of Nonverbal Communication: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Metholodogical Aspects, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  60. Fernald, A. (1993). Approval and disaproval: Infant responsiveness to vocal affect in familiar and unfamiliar languages. Child Dev. 64: 657–674.Google Scholar
  61. Fernald, A., Taescherner, T., Dunn, J., Papousek, M., Boysson-Bardies, B., and Fukui, I. (1989). A cross-language study of prosodic modifications in mothers' and fathers' speech to preverbal infants. J.Child Lang. 16: 477–501.Google Scholar
  62. Foester, O. (1936). The motor cortex of man in light of Hughlings Jackson's doctrines. Brain 59: 135–159.Google Scholar
  63. Ford, C. S., and Beach, F. A. (1951). Patterns of Sexual Behavior, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Fox, P. T. (1995). Broca's area. Motor encoding in somatic space. Behav.Brain Sci. 18: 344–345.Google Scholar
  65. Frodi, A. M., and Lamb, M. E. (1978). Sex differences in responsiveness to infants. Child Dev. 49: 1182–1188.Google Scholar
  66. Frodi, A. M., Lamb, M. E., Hwang, C. P., and Frodi, M. (1982). Father-mother-infant interaction in traditional and nontraditional Swedish families. Altern.Lifestyles 4: 6–13.Google Scholar
  67. Fuchs, D., and Thelen, M. H. (1988). Children's expected interpersonal consequences of communicating their affective state and reported likelihood of expression. Child Dev. 59: 1314–1322.Google Scholar
  68. Gannon, P. J. (1998). Asymmetry of chimpanzee planum temporal: Humanlike pattern of Wernicke's area homolog. Science 279: 348–351.Google Scholar
  69. Geschwind, N. (1965). Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. Brain 88: 585–644.Google Scholar
  70. Geschwind, N., and Levitsky, W. (1968). Human brain: Left right asymmetries in temporal speech regions. Science 161: 186–187.Google Scholar
  71. Gilbert, D. (1969). The young child's awareness of affect. Child Dev. 40: 629–640.Google Scholar
  72. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  73. Gladue, B. A., and Bailey, M. J. (1995). Spatial ability, handedness, and human sexual orientation. Psychoendocrinology 20: 487–497.Google Scholar
  74. Gladue, B. A., Beatty, W., Larson, J., and Staton, D. (1990). Sexual orientation and spatial ability in men and women. Psychobiology 18: 101–108.Google Scholar
  75. Glass, L. (1992). He Says, She Says, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Glees, P., Cole, J., Whitty, C.W. M., and Cairns, H. (1950).The effects of lesions in the cingulate gyrus and adjacent areas in monkeys. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiat. 13: 178–190.Google Scholar
  77. Goldberg, H. (1976). The Hazards of Being Male, Plainville Press, Nashville.Google Scholar
  78. Goodall, J. (1971). In the Shadow of Man, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  79. Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of the Gombe: Patterns of Behavior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Goodall, J. (1990). Through a Window, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  81. Goodglass, H., and Kaplan, E. (2000). Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Lange, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Gordon, T., and Draper, T. W. (1982). Sex bias against male day care workers. Child Care Q. 10: 15–17.Google Scholar
  83. Greenfield, P. M. (1992). Language, tools and brain: The ontology and phylogeny of hierarchically organized sequential behavior. Behav.Brain Sci. 14: 531–595.Google Scholar
  84. Grine, F. E. (1988). Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines, Aldine, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Guiard, Y. G. (1983). Left-hand advantage in right-handers for spatial constant error: Preliminary evidence in a unimanual ballistic aimed movement. Neuropsychologia 21: 111–115.Google Scholar
  86. Gusinde, M. (1961). The Yamana, Human Relations Area Files, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  87. Haaland, K., and Harrington, D. L. (1990). The role of the right hemisphere in closed loop movements. Brain Cogn. 16: 104–122.Google Scholar
  88. Hall, J. (1978). Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychol.Rev. 85: 845–857.Google Scholar
  89. Hamburg, D. A. (1971). Aggressive behavior of chimpanzees and baboons in natural habitats. J.Psychiatr.Res. 8: 385–398.Google Scholar
  90. Hampson, E., and Kimura, D. (1992). Sex differences and hormonal influences on cognitive function in humans. In Becker, J. B., Breedlove, S. M., and Crews, D. (eds.), Behavioral Endocrinology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 357–398.Google Scholar
  91. Hamrick, M. W., and Inouye, S. E. (1995). Thumbs, tools and early humans. Science 268: 586–587.Google Scholar
  92. Harackiewicz, J. N., and DePaulo, B. M. (1982). Accuracy of person perception. Personal.Soc.Psychol.Bull. 8: 247–256.Google Scholar
  93. Harding, R. S. O., and Strum, S. C. (1978). The predatory baboons of Kekopey. Nat.Hist. 85: 46–53.Google Scholar
  94. Harris, L. J. (1978). Sex differences in spatial ability. In Kinsbourne, M. (ed.), Asymmetrical Function of the Brain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  95. Harshman, R. A., Hampson, E., and Berenbaum, S. A. (1983). Individual differences in cognitive abilities. Part I: Sex and handedness differences in ability. Can.J.Psychol. 37: 144–192.Google Scholar
  96. Hauser, M. D. (1997). The Evolution of Communication, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  97. Hauser, M. D., and Anderson, K. (1994). Left hemisphere dominance for processing vocalizations in adult, but not infant rhesus monkeys: First experiments. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 91: 3946–3948.Google Scholar
  98. Heffner, H. E., and Heffner, R. S. (1984). Temporal lobe lesions and perception of species-specific vocalizations in macaques. Science 226: 75–76.Google Scholar
  99. Heilman, K. M., Rothi, L. J., and Valenstein, E. (1982). Two forms of ideomotor apraxia. Neurology 32: 342–346.Google Scholar
  100. Heller,W., and Levy, J. (1981). Perception and expression of emotion in right-handers and left-handers. Neuropsychologia 19: 263–272.Google Scholar
  101. Hicks, R. E. (1975). Intrahemispheric response competition between vocal and unimanual performances in normal adult human males. J.Comp.Physiol.Psychol. 89: 50–60.Google Scholar
  102. Holloway, R. L., Anderson, P. J., Defendini, R., and Harper, C. (1993). Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum from three independent samples: Relative size of the corpus callosum. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 92: 481–498.Google Scholar
  103. Hiatt, B. (1970).Woman the gatherer. In Gale, F. (ed),Woman's Role in Aboriginal Society, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.Google Scholar
  104. Hrdy, S. B. (1979). Infanticide among animals: A review, classification and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethol.Sociobiol. 1: 13–40.Google Scholar
  105. Hupfer, K., Jurgens, U., and Ploog, D. (1977). The effect of superior temporal lesions on recognition of species-specific calls in the squirrel monkey. Exp.Brain Res. 30: 75–87.Google Scholar
  106. Hyde, J. S., and Linn, M. C. (1988). Gender differences in verbal ability: A meta-analysis. Psychol.Bull. 104: 53–69.Google Scholar
  107. Hyvarinen, J. (1982). The Parietal Cortex of Monkey and Man, Spinger Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  108. Jacob, T. (1973). Morphology and paleocology of early man in Java. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), Paleoanthroplogy, Mouton, Paris, pp. 311–326.Google Scholar
  109. Johnson, R. N. (1972). Aggression in Man and Animals, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  110. Jolly, A. (1985). The Evolution of Primate Behavior, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Joseph, R. (1979). Effects of rearing and sex on maze learning and competitive exploration. J.Psychol. 101: 37–43.Google Scholar
  112. Joseph, R. (1982). The neuropsychology of development: Hemispheric laterality, limbic language, and the origin of thought. J.Clin.Psychol. 38: 3–34.Google Scholar
  113. Joseph, R. (1985). Competition between women. Psychology 22: 1–11.Google Scholar
  114. Joseph, R. (1988). The right cerebral hemisphere: Emotion, music, visual-spatial skills, body image, dreams, and awareness. J.Clin.Psychol. 44: 630–673.Google Scholar
  115. Joseph, R. (1990). The left cerebral hemisphere: Aphasia, alexia, agraphia, agnosia, apraxia, schizophrenia, language and thought. In Puente, A. E., and Reynolds C. R. (ser. eds.), Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry, Behavioral Neurology, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Joseph, R. (1992a). Speculations on the evolution of mind, woman, man, and brain. In The Right Brain and the Unconscious, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Joseph, R. (1992b). The limbic system: Emotion, laterality, and unconscious mind. Psychoanal.Rev. 79: 405–456.Google Scholar
  118. Joseph, R. (1993). The Naked Neuron: Evolution and the Languages of the Body and Brain, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Joseph, R. (1996a). Paleo-neurology and the evolution of the human mind and brain. In Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Clinical Neuroscience, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  120. Joseph, R. (1996b). Limbic language, social-emotional intelligence, development and attachment. In Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Clinical Neuroscience, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  121. Joseph, R. (1998). Traumatic amnesia, repression, and hippocampal injury due to corticosteroid and enkephalin secretion and stress. Child Psychiat.Hum.Dev.29: 169–186.Google Scholar
  122. Joseph, R. (1999a). The limbic language/language axis theory of speech. Behav.Brain Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  123. Joseph, R. (1999b). Environmental influences on neuroplasticity, the limbic system, and emotional development. Child Psychiat.Hum.Dev. 29: 187–200.Google Scholar
  124. Joseph, R. (1999c). The neurology of traumatic “dissociative” amnesia. Child Abuse Negl. 23: 715–727.Google Scholar
  125. Joseph, R. (2000). The evolution of human female sexuality. In Clinical Neuroscience, Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  126. Joseph, R., and Gallagher, R. E. (1980). Gender and early environmental influences on activity, overresponsiveness, and exploration. Dev.Psychobiol. 13: 527–544.Google Scholar
  127. Joseph, R., Hess, S., and Birecree, E. (1978). Effects of sex hormone manipulations and exploration on sex differences in maze learning. Behav.Biol. 24: 364–377.Google Scholar
  128. Jurgens, U. (1990). Vocal communication in primates. In Kesner, R. P., and Olton, D. S. (eds.), Neurobiology of Comparative Cognition, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  129. Jurgens, U., Kirzinger, A., and von Cramon, D. (1982). The effects of deep-reaching lesions in the cortical face area on phonation. A combined case report and experimental monkey study. Cortex 18: 125–140.Google Scholar
  130. Kaas, J. H. (1993). The functional organization of somatosensory cortex in primates. Ann.Anat. 175: 509–518.Google Scholar
  131. Kaufman, C. (1974). Mother and infant relationships in monkeys and humans. In White, N. F. (ed.), Ethology and Psychiatry, Toronto Press, Toronto, p. 51.Google Scholar
  132. Kemper, T. (1978). Toward a sociology of emotions. Am.Soci. 13: 30–41.Google Scholar
  133. Kimura, D. (1993). Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Kimura, D., and Harshman, R. A. (1984). Sex differences in brain organization for verbal and nonverbal functions. Prog.Brain Res. 61: 423–441.Google Scholar
  135. Kinsbourne, M., and Cook, J. (1971). Generalized and lateralized effect of concurrent verbalization on a unimanual motor skill. Q.J.Exp.Psychol. 23: 341–345.Google Scholar
  136. Kleiman, D. G. (1977). Monogamy in mammals. Q.Rev.Biol. 52: 39–69.Google Scholar
  137. Koenigsknecht, R. A., and Friedman, R. (1976). Syntax development in boys and girls. Child Dev. 47: 1109–1115.Google Scholar
  138. Kummer, H. (1971). Primate Societies, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  139. Leakey, R. E. F., and Walker, A. (1988). New Australopithecus boisea specimens from East and West Lake Turkana, Kenya. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 76: 1–24.Google Scholar
  140. Lee, R. B. (1974). Male-female residence arrangements and political power in human hunter-gatherers. Arch.Sex.Behav. 3: 167–173.Google Scholar
  141. Lee, R. B., and DeVore, I. (1968). Man the Hunter, Aldine, New York.Google Scholar
  142. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1964). Treasure of Prehistoric Art, H. N. Abrams, New York.Google Scholar
  143. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1982). The archaeology of Lascauz Cave. Sci.Am. 24: 104–112.Google Scholar
  144. Levy, J. (1972). Lateral specialization of the human brain: Behavioral manifestations and possible evolutionary basis. In Kliger, J. A. (ed.), The Biology of Behavior, Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  145. Levy, J. (1974). Psychological implications of bilateral asymmetry. In Dimond, S., and Beaumont, J. G. (eds.), Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain, Paul Elek, London, pp. 121–183.Google Scholar
  146. Levy, J., and Heller, W. (1992). Gender differences in human neuropsychological function. In Gerall, A. A., Moltz, H., and Ward, I. L. (eds.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol. 11.Sexual Differentiation, Plenum, New York, pp. 245–274.Google Scholar
  147. Lewis, H. (1983). Freud and Modern Psychology, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Lewis, J., and Hoover, H. D. (1983). Sex Differences on Standardized Academic Achievement Tests, American Educational Research Association, Montreal Quebec, Apr.Google Scholar
  149. Lezac, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  150. Linn, M. C., and Petersen, A. C. (1985). Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis. Child Dev. 56: 1479–1498.Google Scholar
  151. Locke, J. L. (1996). Development of the capacity for spoken language. In Fletcher, P., and MacWhinney, B. (eds.), The Handbook of Child Language, Blackwell, New York, pp. 278–302.Google Scholar
  152. Lombardo, J. P., and Lavine, L. O. (1981). Sex-role stereotyping and patterns of self-disclosure. Sex Roles 7: 403–411.Google Scholar
  153. Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, New York.Google Scholar
  154. Lovejoy, C. O. (1982). The origin of man. Science 211: 341–350.Google Scholar
  155. Lovejoy, C. O. (1988). Evolution of human walking. Sci.Am. Nov.: 118–125.Google Scholar
  156. Lutz, C. (1980). Emotional Words and Emotional Development, Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  157. Lynch, J. C. (1980). The functional oranization of posterior parietal association cortex. Behav.Brain Sci. 3: 485–499.Google Scholar
  158. MacKinnon, J. (1979). Reproductive behavior in wild organutans populations. In Hamburg, D. A., and McCowan, E. R. (eds.), The Great Apes, Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 257–273.Google Scholar
  159. MacLean, P. (1990). The Evolution of the Triune Brain, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  160. Manning, A. (1972).An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  161. Martin, M. K., and Voorhies, B. (1975). Female of the Species, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Marzek, M. W. (1997). Precision grips, hand morphology, and tools. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 102: 91–110.Google Scholar
  163. Masters, W. H., and Johnson, V. E. (1966). Human Sexual Response, Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  164. Mateer, C. A., Polen, S. B., and Ojemann, G. A. (1982). Sexual variation in cortical localization of naming as determined by stimulation mapping. Behav.Brain Sci. 5: 310–311.Google Scholar
  165. McGee, M. G. (1979). Human spatial abilities: Psychometric studies and environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neurological influences. Psychol.Bull. 86: 889–918.Google Scholar
  166. McGone, J. (1980). Sex differences in human brain asymmetry. Behav.Brain Sci. 3: 215–263.Google Scholar
  167. McGrew, W. C. (1995). Thumbs, tools and early humans. Science 268: 586.Google Scholar
  168. McGrew, W. C., and Marchant, L. F. (1992). Chimpanzees, tools, and terminates: Hand preference or handedness. Curr.Anthropol. 33: 114–119.Google Scholar
  169. McGuiness, D. (1976). Sex differences in the organization of perception and cognition. In Loyd, B., and Archer J. (eds.), Exploring Sex Differences, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  170. McHenry, H. M., and Berger, L. R. (1998). Body proportions in Australopithecus aferensis and A. Africana and the origin of the genus Homo. J.Hum.Evol.35: 1–22.Google Scholar
  171. Mellars, P. (1989). Major issues in the emergence of modern humans. Curr.Anthropol. 30: 349–385.Google Scholar
  172. Melson, G. F., and Fogel, A. (1982). Young children's interest in unfamiliar infants. Child Dev. 53: 693–700.Google Scholar
  173. Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. (1993). Psychobiological research on homosexuality. Child Adolesc.Psychiat. Clin.North.Am. 2: 489–500.Google Scholar
  174. Mitchell, G. (1979). Behavioral Sex Differences in Nonhuman Primates, Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  175. Money, J., and Ehrhard, A. A. (1972). Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  176. Moore, T. (1967). Language and intelligence. Hum.Dev. 10: 88–106.Google Scholar
  177. Mori, A. (1975). Signals found in the grooming interactions of wild Japanese monkeys. Primates 16: 107–140.Google Scholar
  178. Mori, U., and Kawai, M. (1975). Social relations and behavior of gelada baboons. In Mori, U., and Kawai, M. (eds.), Contemporary Primatology, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  179. Morris, B. B. (1971). Effects of angle, sex, and cue on adults' perception of the horizontal. Percept.Motor Skills 32: 827–830.Google Scholar
  180. Morris, D. (1967). The Naked Ape, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  181. Mountcastle, V. B., Lynch, J. C., and Georgopoulos, A. (1975). Posterior parietal assocation cortex of the monkey. J.Neurophysiol. 38: 871–908.Google Scholar
  182. Mountcastle, V. B., Motter, B. C., and Andersen, R. A. (1980). Some further observations on the functional properties of neurons in the parietal lobe of the waking monkey. Behav.Brain Sci. 3: 520–529.Google Scholar
  183. Moyer, K. E. (1974). Sex differences in aggression. In Friedman, R. C., Richart, R. M., and Vande Wiele R. L. (eds.), Sex Differences in Behavior, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  184. Murdock, G. P., and Provost, C. (1973). Factors in the division of labour by sex: A cross-cultural analysis. Ethnology 12: 203–225.Google Scholar
  185. Myers, R. F. (1976). Comparative neurology of vocalization and speech: Proof of a dichotomy. Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci. 280: 755–757.Google Scholar
  186. Nader, R. D. (1976). Sexual behaviour of captive lowland gorillas. Arch.Sex.Behav. 5: 487–502.Google Scholar
  187. Nash, S. C., and Feldman, S. S. (1981). Sex-role and sex-related attributions. In Lamb, M. E., and Brown, A. L. (eds.), Advances in Developmental Psychology, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  188. Neithammer, C. (1977). Daughters of the Earth, Collier, New York.Google Scholar
  189. Newman, J. D., and Wollberg, Z. (1973). Multiple coding of species-specific vocalizations in the auditory cortex of squirrel monkey. Brain Res. 54: 287–304.Google Scholar
  190. Peterson, M. R., Beecher, M. D., Zoloth, S. B., Moody, D. B., and Stebbins, W. C. (1978). Neural lateralization of species-specific vocalization by Japanese macaques. Science202: 324–326.Google Scholar
  191. Peterson, M. R., and Jusczyk, P. (1984). On perceptual predispostions for human speech and monkey vocalizations. In Marler, P., and Terrace, C. E. (eds.), The Biology of Learning, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 585–616.Google Scholar
  192. Potts, R. (1996). Humanity's Descent, William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  193. O'Neil, J. M. (1982). Gender and sex role conflicts in men's lives. In Soloman, K., and Levy, M. (eds.), Men in Transition, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  194. Porteus, S. D. (1965). Porteus Maze Test: Fifty Years' Application, Pacific Books, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  195. Potts, R. (1984). Home bases and early hominids. Am.Sci. 72: 338–347.Google Scholar
  196. Prideaux, T. (1973). Cro-Magnon, Time-Life, New York.Google Scholar
  197. Ransom, T. W., and Powell, T. E. (1972).Early social development of feral baboons. In Poirer, F. E. (ed.), Primate Socialization, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Reinisch, J. M., and Sanders, S. A. (1992). Prenatal hormonal contributions to sex differences in human cognitive and personality development. In Gerall, A. A., Moltz, H., and Ward, I. L. (eds.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Vol. 11.Sexual Differentiation, Plenum, New York, pp. 221–244.Google Scholar
  199. Rightmire, G. P. (1990). The Evolution of Homo Erectus, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  200. Riscutia, C. (1973). A study of the Modjokerto infant calvarium. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), Paleoanthropology, Mouton, Paris, pp. 373–380.Google Scholar
  201. Rizzolatti, C., Camarda, R., Fogassi, L., Gentilucci, M., Luppino, G., and Matelli, M., (1988). Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. II. Area F5 and the control of distal movements. Exp.Brain Res. 71: 491–507.Google Scholar
  202. Robinson, B. W. (1967). Vocalizations evoked from forebrain in Macaca mulatta. Physiol.Behav. 2: 345–352.Google Scholar
  203. Robinson, B. W. (1972). Anatomical and physiological contrasts between human and other primate vocalizations. In Washburn, S. L., and Dolhinow, P. (eds.), Perspectives on Human Evolution, Vol. 2, Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  204. Rossi, A. (1985). Gender and parenthood. In Rossi, A. (ed.), Gender and the Life Cycle, Aldine, Hawthorne.Google Scholar
  205. Rowell, T. E. (1968). The social development of baboons in their first three months. J.Zool. 155: 461–483.Google Scholar
  206. Rowell, T. E. (1991). On the significance of the concept of the harem when applied to animals. In Schubert, G., and Masers, R. D. (eds.), Primate Politics, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  207. Rubin, L. (1983). Intimate Strangers, Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  208. Safer, M. (1981). Sex and hemisphere differences in access to codes for processing emotional expression and faces. J.Exp.Psychol.Gen. 110: 86–100.Google Scholar
  209. Sattel, J. W. (1989). Men, inexpressiveness and power. In Richardson, L., and Taylor, V. (eds.), Feminist Frontiers II, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  210. Schaller, G. B. (1964). The Year of the Gorilla, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  211. Schwarz, D.W. F., and Tomlinson, R.W. (1990). Spectral response patterns of auditory cortex neurons to harmonic complex tones in alert monkey. J.Neurophysiol. 64: 282–298.Google Scholar
  212. Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., and Pugh, K. R. (1995). Sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for language. Nature 373: 607–609.Google Scholar
  213. Shennum, W., and Begental, D. (1982). The development of control over affective expression in nonverbal behavior. In Feldman, R. S. (ed.), Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Children, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  214. Skelton, R. R., and McHenry (1992). Evolutionary relationships among early hominids. J.Hum.Evol. 23: 303–349.Google Scholar
  215. Sigmon, B. A. (1982). Comparative morphology of the locomotor skeleton of Homo Erectus and other fossil hominids with special reference to the trautavel inominte and femora. Proc.1st Congr.Int.Paleontol.Hum. 1: 422–446.Google Scholar
  216. Soloman, D., and Ali, F. (1972). Age trends in the perception of verbal reinforcement. Dev.Psychol. 7: 238–243.Google Scholar
  217. Stacey, P. B. (1982). Female promiscuity and male reproductive success in social birds and mammals. Am.Nat. 51–64.Google Scholar
  218. Strayer, J. (1980). A naturalistic study of emphatic behaviors and their relation to affective states and perspective-taking skills in preschool children. Child Dev. 51: 815–822.Google Scholar
  219. Strub, R. L., and Geschwind, N. (1983). Localization in Gerstmann syndrome. In Kertesz, A. (ed.), Localization in Neuropsychology, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  220. Strum, S. C. (1987). Almost Human, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  221. Suomi, S. J. (1972). Social development of rhesus monkeys reared in an enriched laboratory environment. In Proc.20th Int.Congr.Psychol., Japanese Science Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  222. Susman, R. L. (1995). Thumbs, tools and early humans. Science 268: 589.Google Scholar
  223. Tabet, P. (1982). Hands, tools, weapons. Femin.Issues 2: 3–63.Google Scholar
  224. Tannen, D. (1990). You Just Don't Understand, Ballantine, New York.Google Scholar
  225. Tobias, P. V. (1971). The Brain in Hominid Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  226. Toth, N. (1985). Archeological evidence for preferential right-handedness in lower and Middle Pleistocene, and its possible implications. J.Hum.Evol. 14: 607–614.Google Scholar
  227. Thomas, H., Jamison, W., and Hummel, D. D. (1973). Observation is insufficient for discovering that the surface of still water is invariantly horizontal. Science 181: 173–174.Google Scholar
  228. Uniform Crime Reports (1990–1996). Crime in the United States, U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  229. Van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1968). The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve. Anim.Behav.Monogr. Part III.Google Scholar
  230. Walker, L. J., de Vries, B., and Trevethan, S. D. (1987). Moral stages and moral orientations in real life and hypothetical dilemmas. Child Dev. 58: 842–858.Google Scholar
  231. Watanabe, H. (1964). The Ainu. J.Faculty Sci. 2: 1–87.Google Scholar
  232. Wickler, W. (1973). The Sexual Code, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.Google Scholar
  233. Wiener, S. G. Bayart, F., Faull, K. F., and Levine, S. (1990). Behavioral and physiological response to maternal separation in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Behav.Neurosci. 104: 108–115.Google Scholar
  234. Wilkins, W. K., and Wakefield, J. (1995).Brain evolution and neurolinguistic preconditions. Behav.Brain Sci. 18: 161–226.Google Scholar
  235. Witelson, S. F. (1985). Sex and the single hemisphere: Specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial processing. Science 194: 425–427.Google Scholar
  236. Woolsey, C. N. (1958). Organization of somatic sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. In Harlow, H. F., and Woolsey, C. N. (eds.), Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  237. Zahn-Waxler, C., Friedman, S. L., and Cummings, E. M. (1983). Children's emotions and behaviors in response to infant cries. Child Dev. 54: 1522–1528.Google Scholar
  238. Zilman, A. L. (1981). Women as shapers of the human adaptation. In Dalhberg, F. (ed.), Woman the Gatherer, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Joseph
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Brain Research LaboratorySan Jose, and Palo Alto V.A. Medical CenterPalo Alto
  2. 2.Brain Research LaboratorySan Jose

Personalised recommendations