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On Average Properties of Inhomogeneous Fluids in General Relativity: Dust Cosmologies


For general relativistic spacetimes filled with irrotational ‘dust’ a generalized form of Friedmann's equations for an ‘effective’ expansion factor a D of inhomogeneous cosmologies is derived. Contrary to the standard Friedmann equations, which hold for homogeneous-isotropic cosmologies, the new equations include the ‘backreaction effect’ of inhomogeneities on the average expansion of the model. A universal relation between ‘backreaction’ and average scalar curvature is also given. For cosmologies whose averaged spatial scalar curvature is proportional to a D -2, the expansion law governing a generic domain can be found. However, as the general equations show, ‘backreaction’ acts as to produce average curvature in the course of structure formation, even when starting with space sections that are spatially flat on average.

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Buchert, T. On Average Properties of Inhomogeneous Fluids in General Relativity: Dust Cosmologies. General Relativity and Gravitation 32, 105–125 (2000).

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  • Irrotational dust model