Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 387–403 | Cite as

A New Instrument to Measure Cognitive Distortions in Video Lottery Terminal Users: The Informational Biases Scale (IBS)

  • Steven Jefferson
  • Richard Nicki
Article

Abstract

This paper reports on the development of a new scale, the Informational Biases Scale (IBS), to measure cognitive distortions such as the illusion of control, gambler's fallacy,illusory correlations, and the availability heuristic in video lottery terminal (VLT) players. Ninety-six VLT players recruited from bars in New Brunswick took part in the study. Their average (lifetime) South Oaks Gambling Screen score was in the probable pathological gambler range. The 25-item IBS was shown to have good internal consistency reliability. An exploratory principal components/factor analysis revealed the variability of the IBS to be accounted for by mainly one factor. The construct validity of the instrument was supported by the finding that IBS scores were uniquely determined by measures of gambling addiction and negative affect. The IBS should prove useful in both research and clinical settings involving VLT gamblers.

VLT cognitive distortions scale development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, G., & Brown, R. I. F. (1984). Real and laboratory gambling: Sensation seeking and arousal. British Journal of Psychology, 75, 401-410.Google Scholar
  2. Beaudoin, C. M., & Cox, B. J. (1999). Characteristics of problem gambling in a Canadian context: A preliminary study using a DSM-IV-based questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 483-487.Google Scholar
  3. Bordens, K. S., & Abbott, B. B. (1988). Research design and methods: A process approach. Mountain View, California: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  4. Breen, R. B., Kruedelbach, N. G., & Walker, H. I. (2001). Cognitive changes in pathological gamblers following a 28-day inpatient program. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 15, 246-248.Google Scholar
  5. Breen, R. B., & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 31-43.Google Scholar
  6. Breen, R. B., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). ‘Chasing’ in gambling behavior: Personality and cognitive determinants. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1097-1111.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, T. A., Chorpita, B. F., Korotitsch, W., & Barlow, D. (1997). Psychometric properties of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 79-89.Google Scholar
  8. Coulombe, M., Ladouceur, R., Desharnais, R., & Jobin, J. (1992). Erroneous perceptions and arousal among regular and occasional video poker players. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 235-244.Google Scholar
  9. Culleton, R. P. (1989). The prevalence rates of pathological gambling: A look at methods. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 22-41.Google Scholar
  10. DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Dickerson, M., & Hinchey, J. (1988). The prevalence of excessive and pathological gambling in Australia. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 135-151.Google Scholar
  12. Doiron, J., & Nicki, R. (2001). Epidemiology of problem gambling in Prince Edward Island: A Canadian microcosm? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 413-417.Google Scholar
  13. Gaboury, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1989). Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 411-420.Google Scholar
  14. Gerstein, D. R., Volberg, R. A., Harwood, R., & Christiansen, E. M. (1999). Gambling impact and behaviour study: Report to the national gambling impact study commission. Chicago, Ill: National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  15. Griffiths, M., (1994). The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 351-369.Google Scholar
  16. Griffiths, M. (1995a). Adolescent gambling. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Griffiths, M. (1995b). The role of subjective mood states in the maintenance of fruit machine gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 123-135.Google Scholar
  18. Griffiths, M. (1999). Gambling technologies: Prospects for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 265-283.Google Scholar
  19. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 2, 15-31.Google Scholar
  20. Jacobs, D. F. (1988). Evidence for a common dissociative-like reaction among addicts. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 27-37.Google Scholar
  21. Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  22. Ladouceur, R., Boisvert, J., & Dumont, J. (1994). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescent pathological gamblers. Behavior Modification, 18, 230-241.Google Scholar
  23. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., LaChance, S., Doucet, C., Leblond, J., & Jacques, C. (2001). Cognitive treatment of pathological gambling. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 774-780.Google Scholar
  24. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Trends in behavioural therapies (pp. 89-120). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Lesieur, H. R. & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of problem gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184-1188.Google Scholar
  26. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1993). Revising the South Oaks Gambling Screen in different settings. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 213-223.Google Scholar
  27. Lopez Viets, V. C., & Miller, W. R. (1997). Treatment approaches for pathological gamblers. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 689-702.Google Scholar
  28. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychological Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Morgan, T., Kofoed, M., Buchkoski, J., & Carr. R. D. (1996). Video lottery gambling: Effects on pathological gamblers seeking treatment in South Dakota. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 451-460.Google Scholar
  30. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1-25.Google Scholar
  31. Spiegler, M., & Guevremont, D. (1998). Contemporary behavior therapy. Toronto: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  32. Stinchfield, R. (2002). Reliability, validity, and the classification accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1-19.Google Scholar
  33. Sylvain, C., Ladouceur, R., & Boisvert, J. (1997). Cognitive and behavioural treatment of pathological gambling: A controlled study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 727-732.Google Scholar
  34. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. (1989). Using multivariate statistics. Northbridge: Harper-Collins.Google Scholar
  35. Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T. B., Calderwood, K., Dragonetti, R., & Tsanos, A. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 253-266.Google Scholar
  36. Toneatto, T., & Sobell, L. C. (1990). Psychological gambling treated with cognitive behavior therapy: A case report. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 497-501.Google Scholar
  37. Volberg, R. A., & Banks, S. M. (1990). A review of two measures of pathological gambling in the United States. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 153-163.Google Scholar
  38. Walker, M. B. (1992). Irrational thinking among slot machine players. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 245-261.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Jefferson
    • 1
  • Richard Nicki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.University of New BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations