Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 387–403 | Cite as

A New Instrument to Measure Cognitive Distortions in Video Lottery Terminal Users: The Informational Biases Scale (IBS)

  • Steven Jefferson
  • Richard Nicki


This paper reports on the development of a new scale, the Informational Biases Scale (IBS), to measure cognitive distortions such as the illusion of control, gambler's fallacy,illusory correlations, and the availability heuristic in video lottery terminal (VLT) players. Ninety-six VLT players recruited from bars in New Brunswick took part in the study. Their average (lifetime) South Oaks Gambling Screen score was in the probable pathological gambler range. The 25-item IBS was shown to have good internal consistency reliability. An exploratory principal components/factor analysis revealed the variability of the IBS to be accounted for by mainly one factor. The construct validity of the instrument was supported by the finding that IBS scores were uniquely determined by measures of gambling addiction and negative affect. The IBS should prove useful in both research and clinical settings involving VLT gamblers.

VLT cognitive distortions scale development 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Jefferson
    • 1
  • Richard Nicki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.University of New BrunswickUSA

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