Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 3, Issue 5–6, pp 141–155 | Cite as

Study of Bulk and Sub-Event Wet Deposition in Gebze, Turkey

  • Bülent O. Akkoyunlu
  • Mete Tayanç
  • Mehmet Karaca


This study presents the chemical composition of bulk deposition during the period of February 1996–May 1997 and the chemical composition of sub-event wet deposition on 13 August 1997 in Gebze. Samples were analyzed for SO42-, NO3-, Cl-,Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, and NH4+ in addition to pH. The source of some ionic components in the bulk deposition such as K+ and Ca2+ were found to be the terrestrial regions, as expected. The (non-sea Cl-)/Cl- ratio of 0.05 suggests that the very large portion of Cl- in the bulkdeposition was of marine origin. The ratio of (non-sea SO42-)/SO42- varied between 0.86 and 0.99,indicating that the main source of sulfate was not the sea. It is found that the sulfate and calcium concentrations were highest in summer and lowest in fall. The analysis of bulk deposition also indicated that nearly 24% of the events were acidic (pH < 5.6). During sub-event wet deposition collectedon the same site pH decreased continually, and during the passageof cold front concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- increased.

determination of chemical sources enrichmentfactor sub-event sampling wet and bulk deposition 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed, A. F. M., Singh, P. R. and Elmubarak, A. H.: 1990, ‘Chemistry of atmospheric precipitation at the western Arabian Gulf coast’, Atmosph. Environ. 24A, 2927–2934.Google Scholar
  2. Akkoyunlu, B. O. and Tayanç, M.: 2002, ‘Analysis of wet and bulk deposition in five different regions of Istanbul’, Appropriate Environmental and Solid Waste Management and Technologies for Developing Countries, Vol. 5, pp. 2625–2632.Google Scholar
  3. Atteia, O.: 1994, ‘Major and trace elements in precipitation on western Switzerland’, Atmosph. Environ. 28, 3617–3624.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Momani, I. F., Tuncel, S., Eler, Ñ., Erdal, Ö., Sirin, G. and Tuncel, G.: 1995, ‘Major composition of wet and dry deposition in the eastern. Mediterranean Basin’, Sci. Total Environ. Google Scholar
  5. Beverland, I. J. and Crowther, J. M.: 1992, ‘On the interpretation of event and sub-event rainfall chemistry’, Atmosph. Environ. 75, 163–174.Google Scholar
  6. Brewer, P. G.: 1975, ‘Minor elements in seawater’, in J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (eds.), Chemical Oceanography, 2nd edn., Vol. 1, Academic Press, London, pp. 415–491.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, T. J., Likens, G. E. and Stunder B. J. B.: 2001, ‘Regional-scale impacts of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments in the U.S.A.: The relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry’, Atmosph. Environ. 35(6), 1015–1028.Google Scholar
  8. Dufour, C. M. L., Chapman, B. and Lore, J. A.: 1985, ‘Acid deposition near a sour gas plant in Southwestern Alberta’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 24, 361–373.Google Scholar
  9. Gülsoy, G., Tayanç, M. and Ertürk, F.: 1999, ‘Chemical analyses of the major ions in the precipitation of Istanbul, Turkey’, Environ. Pollut. 105, 273–280.Google Scholar
  10. Hales, J. M.: 1972, ‘Fundamentals of the theory of gas scavenging by rain’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 6, 635–659.Google Scholar
  11. Iversen, T.: 1993, ‘Modelled and measured transboundary acidifying pollution in Europe - Verification and trends’, Atmosph. Environ. 27, 889–920.Google Scholar
  12. Karaca, M., Tayanç, M. and Toros, H.: 1995, ‘The effects of urbanization on climate of Istanbul and Ankara’, Atmosph. Environ., Part B: Urban Atmospheres, 29, 3411–3421.Google Scholar
  13. Karaca, M., Deniz A. and Tayanç M.: 2000, ‘Cyclone track variability over Turkey in association with regional climate’, Internat. J. Climat. 20, 1225–1236.Google Scholar
  14. Kelly, V. R., Lovett, G. M., Weathers, K. C. and Likens, G. E.: 2002, ‘Trends in atmospheric concentration and deposition compared to regional and local pollutant emissions at a rural site in southeastern New York, U.S.A.’, Atmosph. Environ. 36(10), 1569–1575.Google Scholar
  15. Kemerdere, N.: 1996, Gebze ilçesinde emisyon envanteri ve hava kalitesi modellemesi raporu. Project No: 15.1.003. Tübitak Research Center, Environmental Department, Gebze, Turkey (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  16. Khemani, L. T., Momin, G. A., Rao, P. S. P., Pillai, A. G., Safai, P. D., Mohan, K. and Rao, M. G.: 1994, ‘Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on west coast of India’, Atmosph. Environ. 28, 3145–3154.Google Scholar
  17. Lannefors, H., Hansson H. C. and Granat, L.: 1983, ‘Background aerosol composition in Southern Sweden - Fourteen micro and macro constituents measured in seven particle size intervals at one site during one year’, Atmosph. Environ. 17, 87–101.Google Scholar
  18. Lynch, J. A., Bowersox, V. C. and Grimm J. W.: 2000, ‘Changes in sulfate deposition in eastern U.S.A. following implementation of Phase I of Title IV of the clean air act amendments of 1990’, Atmosph. Environ. 34, 1665–1680.Google Scholar
  19. Mosello, R., Marchetto, A. and Tartari, G. A.: 1988, ‘Bulk and wet atmospheric deposition chemistry at Pallanza (N. Italy)’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 42, 137–151.Google Scholar
  20. Okay, C.: 1996, ‘Atmosferik kirletici gaz ve parçaciklarin ölçüm ve analizi’, M.S. Thesis, Marmara University, Education Faculty, Department of Physics, Göztepe, Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  21. Prakasa Rao, P. S., Khemani, L. T., Momin, G. A., Safai, P. D. and Pillai, A. G.: 1992, ‘Measurement of wet and dry deposition at an urban location in India’, Atmosph. Environ. 26B, 73–78.Google Scholar
  22. Singer, A., Shamay, Y. and Fried, M.: 1993, ‘Acid rain on Mt. Carmel, Israel’, Atmosph. Environ. 27, 2287–2293.Google Scholar
  23. Slinn, W. G. N.: 1977, ‘Some approximation for the wet and dry removal of particles and gases from the atmosphere’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 7, 513–543.Google Scholar
  24. Tayanç, M.: 2000, ‘An assessment of spatial and temporal variation of sulfur dioxide levels over Istanbul, Turkey’, Environ. Pollut. 107, 61–69.Google Scholar
  25. Vermette, S. J., Drake, J. J. and Landsberger, S.: 1988, ‘Intra-urban precipitation quality: Hamilton, Canada’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 38, 37–53.Google Scholar
  26. Volken, M. and Schumann, T.: 1993, ‘A Critical reviev of below-cloud aerosol scavenging results on Mt. Rigi’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 68, 15–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bülent O. Akkoyunlu
    • 1
  • Mete Tayanç
    • 2
  • Mehmet Karaca
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMarmara UniversityGöztepe, IstanbulTurkey; (author for correspondence
  2. 2.Department of Environmental EngineeringMarmara UniversityGöztepe, IstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.ITU, Eurasia Institute of Earth SciencesMaslak, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations