Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 299–315

Factors Associated with Satisfaction or Regret Following Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery

  • Anne A. Lawrence

DOI: 10.1023/A:1024086814364

Cite this article as:
Lawrence, A.A. Arch Sex Behav (2003) 32: 299. doi:10.1023/A:1024086814364


This study examined factors associated with satisfaction or regret following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in 232 male-to-female transsexuals operated on between 1994 and 2000 by one surgeon using a consistent technique. Participants, all of whom were at least 1-year postoperative, completed a written questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes. Participants reported overwhelmingly that they were happy with their SRS results and that SRS had greatly improved the quality of their lives. None reported outright regret and only a few expressed even occasional regret. Dissatisfaction was most strongly associated with unsatisfactory physical and functional results of surgery. Most indicators of transsexual typology, such as age at surgery, previous marriage or parenthood, and sexual orientation, were not significantly associated with subjective outcomes. Compliance with minimum eligibility requirements for SRS specified by the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association was not associated with more favorable subjective outcomes. The physical results of SRS may be more important than preoperative factors such as transsexual typology or compliance with established treatment regimens in predicting postoperative satisfaction or regret.

transsexual sex reassignment surgery follow-up typology Standards of Care autogynephilia 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne A. Lawrence

There are no affiliations available

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