Aquaculture International

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 527–549 | Cite as

Evaluations of marine reserves as basis to develop alternative livelihoods in coastal areas of the Philippines

  • K.-J. Kühlmann


The 11 marine reserves along the Leyte Gulf,Eastern Samar, Philippines were quantified interms of reef slope composition, hard coralcoverage and standing fish biomass by manta towand transect dive survey from 1998 to 1999.Based on the assessed ecological conditions(Condition Index, CI; Coral Coverage Index,CCI; Reef Condition Index, RCI; Fish Biomass)and derived ranking, suitable small-scalealternative livelihoods (aquaculture orland-based) to be implemented nearby thesereserves were discussed and developed with theinvolvement of the local stakeholders composedof fishers, farmers, Non-GovernmentOrganization and Local Government Units, in a3-day planning workshop.

The reserves' RCI (0.20 to 0.40) resulted infair (9 reserves) and poor (2 reserves)conditions as indicated by 64 to 68% ofnon-living and 32 to 36% of living slopesubstrate, CI of 0.15 to 0.54, CCI of 0.15 to0.49, and fish biomass of 1.8 to19.6 t km-2. One reserve with the highestecological ranking was determined as a localmonitoring station to educate local fishers andfarmers. For other marine reserves with highecological conditions and located outer ofLeyte Gulf, the farming of Eucheuma sp.,Holothuria sp. and Pinctada sp. were suggested.While, rearing of Haliotis sp., Siganus sp., or Scylla sp. in mangrove-friendlyaquaculture systems, rice farming andeco-tourism were suggested for low rankingreserves. The potential benefits of theselivelihoods and the success in conserving themarine resources may enhance the quality oflife of the coastal populace if there is astrong multi-sectoral cooperation.

alternative livelihood development coastal aquaculture coastal resource management marine reserves 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-J. Kühlmann
    • 1
  1. 1.German Development Service (DED) Philippines, Guiuan Development Foundation IncGuiuan, Eastern SamarPhilippines

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