Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 23–27 | Cite as

Optimization of chemical and electrochemical parameters for the preparation of n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 thin films by electrodeposition

  • S. Michel
  • N. Stein
  • M. Schneider
  • C. BoulangerEmail author
  • J-M. Lecuire


A 23–1 fractional factorial design comprising four runs and three centre points was applied in order to optimize the electrodeposition process to find a compound with the best stoichiometry leading to a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 thin film suitable for thermoelectric applications. The key factors considered were the deposition potential, the percentage of bismuth and the percentage of selenium in the solution. The BiIII, SeIV, TeIV electrolyte mixtures in 1 M HNO3 (pH 0), allowed deposition of ternary alloys to be achieved at room temperature on stainless steel substrates. The deposition mechanism was investigated by linear voltammetry. The films were characterized by micropobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The XRD patterns of the film show that the as-deposited are polycrystalline and isostructural to Bi2Te3. The SEM study shows that the film is covered by crystallites while the AFM image reveals a low level of roughness.

bismuth telluroselenide electrodeposition experimental design X-ray diffraction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. Ohta, T. Kajikawa and Y. Kumashiro, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 110 (1990) 14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.H. Kielyand D.H. Lee, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8 (1997) 661.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Hava, H.B. Sequiera and R.G. Hunsperger, J. Appl. Phys. 58 (1985) 1727.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.Y. Lou, Appl. Opt. 21 (1982) 1602.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Ioffe, ‘Semiconductors Thermoelements and Thermoelectric Cooling’. Infosearch, London (1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Yim and F. Rosi, Solid State Electronics 15 (1957) 1121.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Hodes, S.J. Fonash, A. Heller and B. Miller, ‘Advances Electrochemistryand Electrochemical Engineering’ 13 (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 113B.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. De Mattei and R. Feigelson, ‘Electrochemistryof Semiconductors and Electronics: Processes and Devices’ (Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, New Jersey, USA, 1992).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Saitou, R. Yamaguchi and W. Oshikawa, Mater. Chem. Phys. 73 (2002) 306.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Takahashi, Y. Katou, K. Nagata and S. Furuta, Thin Solid Films 70 (1994) 240.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Magri, C. Boulanger and J.M. Lecuire, in Mathisprakasam and P. Heenan, (Eds), Proceeding 13th International Conference on ‘Thermoelectricity’, Kansas, (AIP Press, New York, 1995), p. 277.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Magri, C. Boulanger and J.M. Lecuire, J. Mater. Chem. 6 (1996) 773.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Miyazaki and T. Kajitani, J. Crystal Growth 229 (2001) 542.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.P. Fleurial, A. Borshcheevsky, M.A. Ryan, W.M. Phillips, J.G. Snyder, T. Caillat, E.A. Kolawa, J.A. Herman, P. Mueller and M. Nicolet, Mater. Res. Soc. 545 (1999) 493.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Goupy, ‘Methods for Experimental Design’ (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1993).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.C. Miller and J.N. Miller, Statistics for Analytical Chemistry (Ellis Harwood and Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Pinzauti, P. Gratteri, S. Furlanetto, P. Mura, E. Dreassi and R. Phan-Tan-Luu, J. Pharm. Biomed. Analysis 41 (1996) 881.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K.D. Altria and S.D. Filbey, Chromatographia 39 (1994) 306.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.E.P. Box, X.G. Hunter and J.S. Hunter, ‘Statistics for Experimenters’ (Wiley, New York, 1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Michel
    • 1
  • N. Stein
    • 1
  • M. Schneider
    • 2
  • C. Boulanger
    • 1
    Email author
  • J-M. Lecuire
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d'Electrochimie des Matériaux, UMR CNRSFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications-E.A.No. 3471-Groupe Synthèses et Applications OrganiquesUniversité de Metz, Ile du SaulcyMetz Cedex 1France

Personalised recommendations