African Archaeological Review

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 231–256 | Cite as

Evidence for Interaction from Recent Hunter-Gatherer Sites in the Caledon Valley

  • Carolyn Thorp


Evidence for contact between hunter-gatherers and agropastoralists from excavated sites in a well-documented frontier zone in the eastern Free State, South Africa, reveals varied intensities of interaction. These interactions range from clientship to relative autonomy. Comparison between recent (eighteenth- to early twentieth-century) hunter-gatherer occupations of rock shelters in the Caledon Valley also suggests that a variety of social relationships between hunter-gatherers and farmers, known ethnographically, occurred simultaneously.

southern Africa nineteenth and twentieth centuries Caledon Valley interaction hunter-gatherers agropastoralists 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolyn Thorp
    • 1
  1. 1.Museum of Human SciencesCauseway HarareZimbabwe

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