Landscape Ecology

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 601–615 | Cite as

Can we manage tropical landscapes? – an answer from the Caribbean perspective

  • Ariel E. Lugo


Humans have used Caribbean island landscapes for millennia. Theconversion of wild lands to built-up lands or to agricultural lands in thesetropical countries follows predictable patterns. Conversion of moist forestlifezones and fertile flatlands is faster than conversion of wet and rain forestlife zones and low fertility steep lands. In Puerto Rico, these trends areleading to increased built-up areas, environmental surprises, and increaseddependence on external subsidies. Changes over the past 50 yr alsoinclude a reversal in deforestation and increase in forest patch size in spiteof increasing human population density. Present forests have different speciescomposition than the original ones but are indistinguishable in physiognomy andbasic function. The reversal of deforestation and forest fragmentation trends,if accompanied by an understanding of the forces that cause the reversal, canresult in the development of tools for landscape management. Tropical landscapemanagement requires understanding and application of natural resiliencemechanisms of ecosystems, greater use of ecological engineering approaches toinfrastructure development, enforcement of zoning laws, enlightened economicdevelopment policies, and an understanding and agreement of a conservationvision among all sectors of society. Mixing species in new combinations to formnew ecosystems is a necessary step in the development of future landscapes.“Landscapes have always changed over time, but we sense,somewhat uneasily, that the processes now at work are more powerfully focusedand possibly irreversible.”“Our present assumption is that generally tropical lands aremuch more sensitive and less resilient than those in the temperatezones.”“...the long-term world trend in land uses is a cascadingloss in capacity (i.e., degradation) in every broad category of landuse.” J.F. Richards 1990, p 176 and 177.

Biodiversity Caribbean islands Deforestation Development Fragmentation Puerto Rico Reforestation Secondary forests Tropical forests Tropical landscapes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aide T.M., Zimmerman J.K., Pascarella J.B., Rivera L. and Marcano Vega H. 2000. Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 8: 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aide T.M., Zimmerman J.K., Herrera L., Rosario M. and Serrano M. 1995. Forest recovery in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 77: 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aide T.M., Zimmerman J.K., Rosario M. and Marcano H. 1996. Forest recovery in abandoned cattle pastures along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. Biotropica 28: 537–548.Google Scholar
  4. Ambio 1981. The Caribbean. Ambio 10: 274–346.Google Scholar
  5. Barrow C.J. 1991. Land Degradation-Development and Breakdown of Terrestrial Environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 295 p.Google Scholar
  6. Batisse M. 1996. Biosphere reserves and regional planning: a prospective vision. Nature and Resources 32: 20–30.Google Scholar
  7. Beller W., d’Ayala P. and Hein P. (eds) 1990. Sustainable Development and Environmental Management of Small Islands. The Parthenon Publishing Group, Park Ridge, New Jersey, USA, 419 p.Google Scholar
  8. Bierregaard R.O., Lovejoy T.E., Kapos V., dos Santos A.A. and Hutchings R.W. 1992. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. Bioscience 42: 1168–1180.Google Scholar
  9. Birdsey R.A. and Weaver P.L. 1982. The Forest Resources of Puerto Rico. Resource Bulletin SO-85. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.Google Scholar
  10. Birdsey R.A. and Weaver P.L. 1987. Forest Area Trends in Puerto Rico. Research Note SO-331. USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 5 p.Google Scholar
  11. Bright C. 1999. The nemesis effect. World Watch Contents 12: 12–22.Google Scholar
  12. Bright C. 2000. Environmental surprises: planning for the unexpected. The Futurist 34: 41–47.Google Scholar
  13. Brown S., Iverson L.R. and Lugo A.E. 1994. Land-use and biomass changes of forests in Peninsular Malaysia from 1972 to 1982: a GIS approach. In: Dale V.H. (ed.), Effects of Land Use Change on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations. Southeast Asia as a case study. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 117–143.Google Scholar
  14. Brown S., Iverson L.R. and Prasad A. 2001. Geographical distribution of biomass carbon in tropical southeast Asian forests: a database. ORNL/CDIAC-119. NDP-068. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, 59 p.Google Scholar
  15. Burgess R.L. and Sharpe D.M. (eds) 1981a. Forest Island Dynamics in Man-dominated Landscapes. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, 310 p.Google Scholar
  16. Burgess R.L. and Sharpe D.M. 1981b. Summary and conclusions. In: Burgess R.L. and Sharpe D.M. (eds), Forest Island Dynamics in Man-dominated Landscapes. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 267–272.Google Scholar
  17. Chomitz K.M. and Gray D.A. 1996. Roads, land use, and deforestation: a spatial model applied to Belize. The World Bank Economic Review 10: 487–512.Google Scholar
  18. DNR 1975. La Zona Costanera de Puerto Rico. Coastal Zone Management Program, Department of Natural Resources, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 44 p.Google Scholar
  19. Finegan B. 1996. Pattern and process in neotropical secondary rain forests: the first 100 years of succession. TREE 11: 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forman R.T.T. and Collinge S.K. 1996. The ‘spatial solution’ to conserving biodiversity in landscapes and regions. In: in: De-Graaf R.M. and Miller R.I. (eds), Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes. Chapman & Hall, London, England, pp. 537–568.Google Scholar
  21. Foster D.R. 1992. Land-use history (1730–1990) and vegetation dynamics in central New England, USA. Journal of Ecology 80: 722–753.Google Scholar
  22. Foster D.R., Knight D.H. and Franklin J.F. 1998a. Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 497–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foster D.R. and Motzkin G. 1998. Ecology and conservation in the cultural landscape of New England: lessons from nature’s history. Northeastern Naturalist 5: 111–126.Google Scholar
  24. Foster D.R., Motzkin G. and Slater B. 1998b. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1: 96–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foster D.R., Aber J.D., Melillo J.M., Bowden R.D. and Bazzaz F.A. 1997. Forest response to disturbance and anthropogenic stress. BioScience 47: 437–445.Google Scholar
  26. Foster D.R., Fluet M. and Boose E.R. 1999. Human or natural disturbance: landscape-scale dynamics of the tropical forests of Puerto Rico. Ecological Applications 9: 555–572.Google Scholar
  27. Foster R.B. and Terborg J. 1998. Impact of a rare storm event on an Amazonian forest. Biotropica 30: 470–474.Google Scholar
  28. Franco P.A., Weaver P.L. and Eggen-McIntosh S. 1997. Forest Resources of Puerto Rico, 1990. Resource Bulletin SRS-22., USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, 45 p.Google Scholar
  29. Fuller J.L., Foster D.R., McLachlan J.S. and Drake N. 1998. Impact of human activity on regional forest composition and dynamics in Central New England. Ecosystems 1: 76–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. García Montiel D. and Scatena F.N. 1994. The effect of human activity on the structure and composition of a tropical forest in Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 63: 57–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gómez-Pompa A. and Bainbridge D.A. 1995. Tropical forestry as if people mattered. In: Lugo A.E. and Lowe C. (eds), Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 408–422.Google Scholar
  32. Haber W. 1990. Using landscape ecology in planning and management. In: Zonneveld I.S. and Forman R.T.T. (eds), Changing Landscapes: an Ecological Perspective. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 217–232.Google Scholar
  33. Hall C.A.S. (ed.) 2000. Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA, 760 p.Google Scholar
  34. Hall C.A.S., Cleveland C.J. and Kaufmann R. 1986. Energy and resource quality: the ecology of the economic process. Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  35. Hall C.A.S., Hall M. and Aguilar B. 2000a. A brief historical and visual introduction to Costa Rica. In: Hall C.A.S. (ed.), Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 2–42.Google Scholar
  36. Hall C.A.S., Levitan L. and Schlichter T. 2000b. Land, energy, and agricultural production in Costa Rica. In: Hall C.A.S. (ed.), Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 121–156.Google Scholar
  37. Hammond D.S. and ter Steege H. 1998. Propensity for fire in the Guianan rainforests. Conservation Biology 12: 944–947.Google Scholar
  38. Harrison S. 1991. Population growth, land use and deforestation in Costa Rica, 1950–1984. Interciencia 16: 83–93.Google Scholar
  39. Helmer E.H. 1999. The landscape ecology of secondary tropical forest in montane Costa Rica. Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.Google Scholar
  40. Holdridge L.R. 1967. Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center, San José, Costa Rica, 106 p.Google Scholar
  41. Holling C.S. 1986. Resilience of ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In: Clark W.C. and Munn R.E. (eds), Sustainable Development of the Biosphere. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, pp. 292–317.Google Scholar
  42. Hunter J.M. and Arbona S.I. 1995. Paradise lost: and introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico. Social Science and Medicine 40: 1331–1355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Iverson L.R., Brown S., Prasad A., Mitasova H., Gillespie A.J.R. and Lugo A.E. 1994. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental south and southeast Asia. In: Dale V.H. (ed.), Effects of Land Use Change on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations. Southeast Asia as a Case Study. Springer Verlag, New York, New york, USA, pp. 67–116.Google Scholar
  44. Joglar R.L. and Burrowes P.A. 1996. Declining amphibian populations in Puerto Rico. In: Powell R. and Henderson R.W. (eds), Contributions to West Indian Herpetology: A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, USA, pp. 371–380.Google Scholar
  45. Kiline J.D. and Alig R.J. 1999. Does land use planning slow the conversion of forest and farmlands? Growth and Change 30: 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kramer E.A. 1997. Measuring landscape changes in remnant tropical dry forests. In: LauranceW.F. and Bierregaard R.O. Jr (eds), Tropical Forest Remnants-Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, pp. 386–399.Google Scholar
  47. Lamb F.B. 1966. Mahogany of Tropical America. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 220 p.Google Scholar
  48. Laurance W.F. and Bierregaard R.O. Jr (eds) 1997. Tropical Forest Remnants-Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 616 p.Google Scholar
  49. Leopold A. 1933. The conservation ethic. Journal of Forestry 31: 634–643.Google Scholar
  50. Leopold A. 1993. Round River. Oxford University Press, New York, New york, USA, P 145–146.Google Scholar
  51. Liogier H.A. 1990. The plants introduced in the West Indies after the discovery of America and their impact on the ecology. Boletín de la Comición Puertorriqueña para la Celebración del Quinto Aniversario del Descubrimiento de America y Puerto Rico., San Juan, Puerto Rico, 63 p.Google Scholar
  52. del López M.T., Aide T.M. and Thomlinson J.R. 2001. Urban expansion and the loss of prime agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. Ambio 30: 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lugo A.E. 1982. La naturaleza y límites del ecosistema puertorriqueño. Boletín de la Academia de Artes y Ciencias de Puerto Rico 19: 1–33.Google Scholar
  54. Lugo A.E. 1988a. Estimating reductions in the diversity of tropical forest species. In: Wilson E.O. and Peter F.M. (eds), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 58–70.Google Scholar
  55. Lugo A.E. 1988b. The future of the forest. Ecosystem rehabilitation in the tropics. Environment 30: 16–20.Google Scholar
  56. Lugo A.E. 1991. Cities in the sustainable development of tropical landscapes. Nature and Resources 27: 27–35.Google Scholar
  57. Lugo A.E. 1995. Tropical forests: their future and our future. In: Lugo A.E. and Lowe C. (eds), Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  58. Lugo A.E. 1996. Caribbean island landscapes: indicators of the effects of economic growth on the region. Environment and Development Economics 1: 128–136.Google Scholar
  59. Lugo A.E. 1998. Biodiversity and public-policy: the middle of the road. In: Guruswamy L.D. and McNeely J.A. (eds), Protection of Global Biodiversity: Converging Strategies. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, USA, pp. 34–45.Google Scholar
  60. Lugo A.E., Sánchez M.J. and Brown S. 1986. Land use and organic carbon content of some subtropical soils. Plant and Soil 96: 185–196.Google Scholar
  61. Lugo A.E. and Brown S. 1996. Management of land and species richness in the tropics. In: Szaro R.C. and Johnston D.W. (eds), Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes. Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 280–295.Google Scholar
  62. Lugo A.E. and Brown S. 2001. Biodiversity in the Caribbean: concepts, assessments, management and monitoring at the landscape scale. In: Yocum C. and Lugo A.E. (eds), Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Management and Benefits. USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, pp. 92–98.Google Scholar
  63. Lugo A.E., López del M.T. and Ramos O.M. 2001. Zonificación de terrenos en la periferia de El Yunque. General Technical Report IITF-16. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, 12 p + map.Google Scholar
  64. Lugo A.E., Ramos O., Molina S., Scatena F.N. and Vélez Rodríguez L.L. (eds) 1996. A fifty-three year record of land use change in the Guánica forest biosphere reserve and its vicinity. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, 13 p + maps + photos.Google Scholar
  65. Lugo A.E., Schmidt R. and Brown S. 1981. Tropical forests in the Caribbean. Ambio 10: 318–324.Google Scholar
  66. Meyer W.B. and Turner B.L. II (eds) 1994. Changes in land use and land cover-a global perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 537 p.Google Scholar
  67. Molina Colón S. 1998. Long-term recovery of a Caribbean dry forest after abandonment of different land uses in Guánica, Puerto Rico. Dissertation, 270 p. University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  68. Moran E.F. and Brondizio E. 1998. Land-use change after deforestation in Amazonia. In: in: Rindfuss R.R. and Stern P.C. (eds), People and pixels: linking remote sensing and social science. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 94–120.Google Scholar
  69. Moran E.F., Packer A., Brondizio E. and Tucker J. 1996. Restoration of vegetation cover in the eastern Amazon. Ecological Economics 18: 41–54.Google Scholar
  70. Motzkin G., Foster D.R., Allen A., Harrod J. and Boone R. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs 66: 345–365.Google Scholar
  71. Murphy L.S. 1916. Forests of Puerto Rico: Past, Present, and Future and their Physical and Economic Environment. Bulletin 354. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA, 99 p.Google Scholar
  72. Nelson B.W., Kapos V., Adams J.B., Oliveira W.J., Braun O.P.G. and do Amaral I.L. 1994. Forest disturbance by large blowdowns in the Brazilian Amazon. Ecology 75: 853–858.Google Scholar
  73. Nepstad D., Moreira A. and Veríssimo A. et al. 1998. Forest fire prediction and prevention in the Brazilian Amazon. Conservation Biology 12: 951–953.Google Scholar
  74. Nepstad D., Uhl C. and Serrão E.A. 1990. Surmounting barriers to forest regeneration in abandoned, highly degraded pastures: a case study from Paragominas, Pará, Brazil. In: Anderson A.B. (ed.), Alternatives to Deforestation. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 215–229.Google Scholar
  75. Odum E.P. and Turner M.G. 1990. The Georgia landscape: a changing resource. In: Zonneveld I.S. and Forman R.T.T. (eds), Changing landscapes: an ecological perspective. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 137–164.Google Scholar
  76. Odum H.T. 1962. Ecological tools and their use. Man and the ecosystem. In: Proceedings of the Lockwood Conference on the Suburban Forest and Ecology. Bulletin 652. New Haven Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT, USA, pp. 55–77.Google Scholar
  77. Odum H.T. 1996. Scales of ecological engineering. Ecological Engineering 6: 7–19.Google Scholar
  78. Odum H.T. 1988. Self organization, transformity, and information. Science 242: 1132–1139.Google Scholar
  79. Odum H.T. 1995. Self organization and maximum power. In: Hall C.A.S. (ed.), Maximum Power. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado, USA, pp. 311–364.Google Scholar
  80. Odum H.T. and Odum E.C. 2001. A Prosperous Way Down: Principles and Policies. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 326 p.Google Scholar
  81. Parrotta J.A. and Turnbull J.W. 1997. Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 1–290.Google Scholar
  82. Peters E. 1997. Diseases of coral reef organisms. In: Birkeland C. (ed.), Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Chapman and Hall, pp. 114–139.Google Scholar
  83. Pickett S.T.A. and White P.S. (eds) 1985. The Ecology of Natural Disturbances and Patch Dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA, 472 p.Google Scholar
  84. Pimentel D., Stachow U., Takacs D.A., Brubaker H.W., Dumas A.R., Meaney J.J. et al. 1992. Conserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems. BioScience 42: 354–362.Google Scholar
  85. Prendergast J.R., Quinn R.M. and Lawton J.H. 1997. The gaps between theory and practice in selecting natural reserves. Conservation Biology 13: 484–492.Google Scholar
  86. Purata S.E. 1986. Floristic and structural changes during old-field succession in the Mexican tropics in relation to site history and species availability. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2: 257–276.Google Scholar
  87. Ramos O. 1996. Assessing northeastern Puerto Rico vegetation changes using RS and GIS. Clark University, Worcester, USA.Google Scholar
  88. Ramos González O.M. 2001. Assessing vegetation and land cover changes in northeastern Puerto Rico: 1978–1995. Caribbean Journal of Science 37: XX.Google Scholar
  89. Ramos O.M. and Lugo A.E. 1994. Mapa de la vegetación de Puerto Rico. Acta Científica 8: 63–66.Google Scholar
  90. Richards J.F. 1990. Land transformation. In: Turner B.L. II, Clark W.C., Kates R.W., Richards J.F., Mathews J.T. and Meyer W.B. (eds), The Earth as transformed by human activity-global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, pp. 161–178.Google Scholar
  91. Richardson L.L. 1998. Coral diseases: what is really known? Tree 13: 438–443.Google Scholar
  92. Rivera L.W. and Aide T.M. 1998. Forest recovery in the karst region of Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 108: 63–75.Google Scholar
  93. Rivera Batiz F.L. and Santiago C.E. 1996. Island Paradox-Puerto Rico in the 1990s. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, New York, USA, 198 p.Google Scholar
  94. Risser P.G. 1995. The Allerton Park workshop revisited-a commentary. Landscape Ecology 10: 129–132.Google Scholar
  95. Roberts R.C. 1942. Soil Survey of Puerto Rico. USDA Series 1936, No. 8. US Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 503 p + maps.Google Scholar
  96. Rudel T.K., Perez Lugo M. and Zichal H. 2000. When fields revert to forest: development and spontaneous reforestation in postwar Puerto Rico. Professional Geographer 52: 186–397.Google Scholar
  97. Ruzicka M. and Miklos L. 1990. Basic premises and methods in landscape ecological planning and optimization. In: Zonneveld I.S. and Forman R.T.T. (eds), Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 233–260.Google Scholar
  98. Sader S. and Joyce A. 1988. Deforestation rates and trends in Costa Rica, 1940–1983. Biotropica 20: 11–19.Google Scholar
  99. Scatena F.N. and Larsen M.C. 1991. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23: 317–323.Google Scholar
  100. Shafer C.L. 1999. US National Park buffer zones: historical, scientific, social, and legal aspects. Environmental Management 23: 49–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Silver W., Ostertag B. and Lugo A.E. 2000. The potential for carbon sequestration through reforestation of abandoned tropical agricultural and pasture lands. Restoration Ecology 8: 394–403.Google Scholar
  102. Snyder N.F.R., Wiley J.W. and Kepler C.B. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural History and Conservation of the Puerto Rican Parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles, California, USA, 384 p.Google Scholar
  103. Sousa W.P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities. Annual Review Ecology and Systematics 15: 353–391.Google Scholar
  104. Staaland H., Holand Ø, Nellenmann C. and Smith M. 1998. Time scale for forest regrowth: abandoned grazing and agricultural areas in southern Norway. Ambio 27: 456–460.Google Scholar
  105. Stallard R.F. 2001. Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: analysis of US government data archives. Conservation Biology 15: 943–953.Google Scholar
  106. Thomlinson J.R., Serrano M.I., del T., López M., Aide T.M. and Zimmerman J.K. 1996. Land-use dynamics in a post-agricultural Puerto Rican landscape (1936–1988). Biotropica 28: 525–536.Google Scholar
  107. Tomblin J. 1981. Earthquakes, volcanoes and hurricanes: a review of natural hazards and vulnerability in the West Indies. Ambio 10: 340–345.Google Scholar
  108. Tosi J. and Voertman R.F. 1964. Some environmental factors in the economic development of the tropics. Economic Geography 40: 189–205.Google Scholar
  109. Tucker J.M., Brondizio E.S. and Moran E.F. 1998. Rates of forest regrowth in eastern Amazonia: a comparison of Altamira and Bragantina regions, Pará state, Brazil. Interciencia 23: 64–73.Google Scholar
  110. Turner B.L., Turner W.C. II, Clark R.W., Kates J.F., Richards J.T. and Meyer W.B. (eds) 1990. The Earth as transformed by human activity-global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 713 p.Google Scholar
  111. Turner I.M. and Corlett R.T. 1996. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest. Tree 11: 330–333.Google Scholar
  112. Uhl C., Buschbacher R. and Serrão E.A.S. 1988. Abandoned pastures in eastern Amazonia. I. Patterns of plant succession. Journal of Ecology 76: 663–681.Google Scholar
  113. Veldkamp E. 1992. Deforestation trends in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica: a case study in soil organic carbon dynamics in pastures established after deforestation in the humid tropics of Costa Rica. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 3: 71–84.Google Scholar
  114. Wadsworth F.H. 1995. A forest research institution in the West Indies: the first 50 years. In: Lugo A.E. and Lowe C. (eds), Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, pp. 33–56Google Scholar
  115. Wadsworth F.H. and Birdsey R.A. 1985. A new look at the forests of Puerto Rico. Turrialba 35: 11–17.Google Scholar
  116. Willig M.R., Moorhead D.L., Cox S.B. and Zak J.C. 1996. Functional diversity of soil bacterial communities in the tabonuco forest: interaction of anthropogenic and natural disturbance. Biotropica 28: 471–483.Google Scholar
  117. Woodwell G.M. (ed.) 1990. The Earth in Transition-Patterns Processes of biotic Impoverishment. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, USA, 530 p.Google Scholar
  118. Wunderle J.M. Jr 1997. The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 223–235.Google Scholar
  119. Zimmerman J.K., Aide T.M., Rosario M., Serrano M. and Herrera L. 1995. Effects of land management and a recent hurricane on forest structure and composition in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Forest Ecology and Management 77: 65–76.Google Scholar
  120. Zonneveld I.S. and Forman R.T.T. (eds) 1990. Changing Landscapes-An Ecological Perspective. Springer Verlag, New York, New York, USA, 286 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariel E. Lugo
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Forest ServiceInternational Institute of Tropical ForestryRío PiedrasPuerto Rico

Personalised recommendations