Advertisement

Plant Ecology

, Volume 164, Issue 1, pp 109–123 | Cite as

Community Structure of Woody Plants of Roraima Savannahs, Brazil

  • Izildinha Souza MirandaEmail author
  • Maria Lúcia Absy
  • George Henrique Rebêlo
Article

Abstract

Patterns of diversity and community organisation of woody species ofsavannahs in Roraima, northern Brazil, were investigated, to relate structuraldata with edaphic factors and to analyse floristic relationships usingclassification and ordination techniques. The species studied refer to aninventory of 45 plots of 150 × 10 m (0.15 ha)distributed in the Roraima savannahs. We identified 13,410 woody individuals,belonging to 30 families, 52 genera and 71 species. The percentage of rarespecies is high, 58%. The richness, diversity, density and basal area of thestudied plots suggest that Roraima savannahs are poor in species. The mostimportant species include element dwarf shrubs (Byrsonimaverbascifolia, Tibouchina aspera andCassia obtusifolia), shrubby (Psidiumguianense, Randia formosa, Caseariasylvestris, Erythroxylum suberosum,Tocoyena formosa and Mimosamicrocephala) and arboreal (Curatellaamericana,B. crassifolia, B. coccolobifolia,Bowdichia virgilioides, Roupalamontana, Antonia ovata, Genipaamericana, Vitex schomburgkiana,Peltogyne campestris, Xylopiaaromatica and Himatanthus articulatus).Correlation between edaphic factors and vegetation indices reveal that densityseems to be more sensitive to edaphic factors than to basal area and diversity.Density correlated significantly with levels of Al, K and the quantity of sandin the soil. Edaphic factors can explain the distribution and importance ofsomespecies, such as: B. virgilioides, R.montana and P. guianense. Classificationanalysis tended to confirm PCA results, separating Roraima savannahs into threelarge clusters. This suggests that ecological differentiation is based not onlyon species density but also on basal area. Ordination describes floristicvariation but does not identify all edaphic gradients.

Abundance curves Amazonia Classification Diversity Ordination 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AMBITEC 1994. Roraima. O Brasil do Hemisfério Norte: Diagnóstico Científico e Tecnológico para o Desenvolvimento. Fundação do Meio Ambiente e Tecnologia de Roraima, Boa Vista.Google Scholar
  2. Araujo E.L., Sampaio E.V.S.B. and Rodal M.J.N. 1995. Composição Florística e Fitossociológica de Três áreas de Caatinga de Pernambuco. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 55: 595-607.Google Scholar
  3. Beard J.S. 1953. The Savannah Vegetation of Northern Tropical America. Ecol. Monog. 23: 149-215.Google Scholar
  4. Borhidi A. 1988. Vegetation dynamics of the savannization process on Cuba. Vegetatio. 77: 177-183.Google Scholar
  5. Bourliére F. and Hadley M. 1983. Present-day savannnas: an overview. In: Bourliére F. (ed.), Tropical Savannas. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 1-18.Google Scholar
  6. Corrêa P.R.S., Peres R.N. and Souza L.F.P. 1975. Pedologia. Levantamento exploratório. In: BRASIL. Projeto RADAMBRASIL. Folha, NA. 20 Boa Vista e parte das Folhas NA. 21 Tumucumaque, NB. 20 Roraima e NB. 21. DNPM, Ministério das Minas e Energia. Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro., pp. 181-305.Google Scholar
  7. Cottam G. and Curtis J.T. 1956. The use of distance measure in phytosociological sampling. Ecology 37: 451-460.Google Scholar
  8. Coutinho L.M. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in Brazilian Cerrado. In: Huntley B.J. and Walker B.H. (eds), Ecology of Tropical Savannas. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 272-291.Google Scholar
  9. Dantas M. and Rodrigues A.I. 1982. Estudos Fitoecológicos do Trópico úmido Brasileiro: IV-Levantamentos Botânicos em Campos do Rio Branco. EMBRAPA/CPATU, Boletim de Pesquisa 40: 1-31.Google Scholar
  10. Durigan G., Leitão Filho H.F. and Rodrigues R.R. 1994. Phytosociology and structure of a frequently burnt cerrado vegetation in SE-Brazil. Flora 189: 153-160.Google Scholar
  11. Eiten G. 1975. The vegetation of Serra do Roncador. Biotropica 7: 112-135.Google Scholar
  12. Embrapa 1979. Manual de métodos de análise de solo do serviço nacional de levantamento e conservação de solos. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Conservação de Solos., Rio de Janeiro, 98 p.Google Scholar
  13. Felfili J.M. and Silva M.C. Jr 1988. Distribuição dos diâmetros numa faixa de cerrado na Fazenda água Limpa (FAL) in Brasília-DF. Acta Botanica Brasilica 2: 85-104.Google Scholar
  14. Felfili J.M. and Silva M.C. Jr 1993. A comparative study of cerrado (sensu stricto) vegetation in Central Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9: 277-289.Google Scholar
  15. Franco E.M.S., Del'Arco J.O. and Rivetti M. 1975. Geomorfologia. In: Projeto RADAMBRASIL. Folha, NA. 20 Boa Vista e parte das Folhas NA. 21 Tumucumaque, NB. 20 Roraima e NB. 21. DNPM, Ministério das Minas e Energia. Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 137-180.Google Scholar
  16. Furley P.A. and Ratter J.A. 1988. Soil resouces and communities of the Central Brazilian cerrado and their development. J. Biogeog 15: 97-108.Google Scholar
  17. Gibbs P.E., Leitão Filho H.F. and Shepherd G.J. 1983. Floristic Composition and community structure in an area of cerrado in SE Brazil. Flora 173: 433-449.Google Scholar
  18. Goldsmith F.B. 1974. Multivariate analysis of tropical grassland communities in Mato Grosso, Brazil. J. Biogeog 1: 111-122.Google Scholar
  19. Goodland R. 1966. On the Savanna Vegetation of Calabozo, Venezuela and Rupununi, Britsh Guiana. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciências Naturales 26: 341-359.Google Scholar
  20. Goodland R. and Pollard R. 1973. The brazilian cerrado vegetation: a fertility gradient. Journal of Ecology 61: 219-224.Google Scholar
  21. Goodland R. and Ferri M.G. 1979. Ecologia do Cerrado. Livraria Itatiaia, Belo Horizontes. EDUSP, São Paulo.Google Scholar
  22. Gottsberger G. and Morawetz W. 1986. Floristic, Structural and Phytogeographical Analysis of the Savannahs of Humaitá (Amazonas). Flora 178: 41-71.Google Scholar
  23. Haffer J. 1969. Speciation in Amazonial forest birds. Science 165: 131-137.Google Scholar
  24. Heltshe J.F. and Forrester N.E. 1983. Estimating Species Richness Using the Jacknife Procedure. Biometrics 39: 1-11.Google Scholar
  25. Hoffmann W.A. 1996. The effects of fire and cover on seedling establishment in a neotropical savannah. Journal of Ecology 84: 383-393.Google Scholar
  26. Huber O. 1982. Significance of savannah vegetation in the Amazon Territory of Venezuela. In: Prance G.T. (ed.), Biological Diversification in the Tropics. Columbia University Press, New york, pp. 221-244.Google Scholar
  27. Lleras E., Kirkbride J.R. and J.H. 1978. Alguns aspectos da vegetação da Serra do Cachimbo. Acta Amazonica 8: 51-65.Google Scholar
  28. Lopes A.S. and Cox F.R. 1977. Cerrado Vegetation in Brazil: na edaphic gradient. Agronomy Journal 69: 828-831.Google Scholar
  29. Ludwig J.A. and Reynolds J.F. 1988. Statistical Ecology: a primer on methods and computing. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Magurran A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  31. May R.M. 1975. Patterns of species abundance and diversity. In: Cody M.L. and Diamond J.M. (eds), Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Harvard Yniversity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  32. Medina E. 1987. Nutrients: requirements, conservation and cycles in the herbaceous layer. In: Walker B.W. (ed.), Determinants of savannahs. IUBS monograph series no. 3. IRL Press, Oxford, pp. 39-67.Google Scholar
  33. Milliken W. and Ratter J. 1989. First report of the vegetation survey of the Maracá Rainforest Project. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburg, UK, 277P.Google Scholar
  34. Miranda I.S. 1993. Estrutura do estrato arbóreo do cerrado amazônico em Alter-do-Chão, Pará, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 16: 143-150.Google Scholar
  35. Miranda I.S. 1998. Flora, Fisionomia e Estrutura das Savanas de Roraima. INPA/FUA, Tese de doutorado, Manaus.Google Scholar
  36. Miranda I.S. and Absy M.L. 1997. Flora Fanerogâmica das Savanas de Roraima. In: Barbosa R.I., Ferreira E. and Castellon E. (eds), Roraima: Ocupação humana, Ecologia e Desenvolvimento de Roraima. INPA, Manaus.Google Scholar
  37. Mori S.A. and Prance G.T. 1987. Species, Diversity, Phenology, Plant-Animal Interactions, and Their Correlation With Climate, as Illustrated by the Brazil Nut Family (Lecythidaceae). In: Diekinson R.E. (ed.), The geophysiology of Amazonia. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 69-89.Google Scholar
  38. Myers J.G. 1936. Savannahh and Forest Vegetation of the Interior Guiana Plateau. Journal of Ecology 24: 161-184.Google Scholar
  39. Nascimento M.T. and Cunha C.N. 1989. Estrutura e Composição Florística de um Cambarazal no Pantanal de Poconé-MT. Acta Botanica Brasilica 3: 3-23.Google Scholar
  40. Nascimento M.T. and Saddi N. 1992. Structure and floristic composition in an area of cerrado in Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 15: 47-56.Google Scholar
  41. Newbery D. and McC. 1991. Floristic variation within kerangas (heath) forest: re-evaluation of data from Sarawak and Brunei. Vegetatio 96: 43-86.Google Scholar
  42. Nimer E. 1991. Clima. In: Geografia do Brasil: Região Norte. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 61-71.Google Scholar
  43. Oliveira A.T. and Martins F.R. 1986. Distribuição, caraterização e composição florística das formações vegetais da região da salgadeira, na Chapada dos Guimarães (MT). Revista Brasileira de Botânica 9: 207-223.Google Scholar
  44. Oliveira A.T., Shepherd J., Martins F.R. and Stubblebine W.H. 1989. Environmental factors affecting physiognomic and floristic variation in an area cerrado in central Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 413-431.Google Scholar
  45. Oliveira A.T., Ratter J.A. and Shepherd G.J. 1990. Floristic Composition and Community Structure of a Central Brazilian Gallery Forest. Flora 184: 103-117.Google Scholar
  46. Pagano S.N., Cesar O. and Leitão Filho H.F. 1989. Estrutura Fitossociológica do Estrato Arbustivo-Arbóreo da Vegetação de Cerrado da área de Proteção Ambiental (APA) de Corumbataí-Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 49: 49-59.Google Scholar
  47. Palmer M.W. 1990. The estimation of species richness by extrapolation. Ecology 71: 1195-1198.Google Scholar
  48. Palmer M.W. 1991. Estimating species richness the second-order jacknife reconsidered. Ecology 72: 1512-1513.Google Scholar
  49. Pemadasa M.A. and Mueller-Dombois D. 1979. An Ordination Study of Montane Grasslands of Sri Lanka. Journal of Ecology 67: 1009-1023.Google Scholar
  50. Pielou E.C. 1977. Mathematical Ecology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Pires J.M. and Prance G.T. 1985. The Vegetation Types of the Brazilian Amazon. In: Prance G.T. and Lovejoy T.E (eds), Key Environments Amazonia. Pergamom Press, Oxford, pp. 109-145.Google Scholar
  52. Ratter J.A. 1987. Notes on the vegetation of the Parque Nacional do Araguaia (Brazil). Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburg 44: 311-342.Google Scholar
  53. Ratter J.A., Richards P.W., Argent G. and Gifford D.R. 1973. Observations on the vegetation of northeastern Mato Grosso. 1. The Woody vegetation types of the Xavantina-Cachimbo expedition area. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 226: 449-492.Google Scholar
  54. Ratter J.A., Leitão Filho H.F., Argent G., Gibbs P.E., Semir J., Shepherd G. et al. 1988. Floristic composition and community structure of a southern cerrado area in Brazil. Notes of the Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburg 45: 137-151.Google Scholar
  55. Ratter J.A. and Dargie T.C.D. 1992. An analysis of the floristic composition of 26 cerrado areas in Brazil. Edinburg Journal of Botany 49: 235-250.Google Scholar
  56. Ratter J.A., Bridgewater S., Atkinson R. and Ribeiro J.F. 1996. Analysis of the Brazilian Cerrado Vegetation II: Comparison of the Woody Vegetation of 98 areas. Edinburg Journal of Botany 53: 153-180.Google Scholar
  57. Takeuchi M. 1960. A Estrutura da Vegetaçào na Amazônia. II-As Savanas do Norte da Amazônia. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, série Botânica 7: 1-14.Google Scholar
  58. Tausch R.J., Charlet D.A., Weixelman D.A. and Zamudio D.C. 1995. Patterns of ordination and classification instability resulting from changes in input data order. J. Veg. Sci. 6: 897-902.Google Scholar
  59. Watkins A.J. and Wilson J.B. 1994. Plant community structure, and its relation to the vertical complexity of communities: dominance diversity, spatial rank consistency and species richness. Oikos 70: 91-98.Google Scholar
  60. Whittaker R.H. 1965. Dominance and Diversity in Land Plant Communities. Science 147: 250-260.Google Scholar
  61. Zar J.H. 1996. Biostatistical Analysis. 3rd edn. Prentice Hall International, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Izildinha Souza Miranda
    • 1
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Lúcia Absy
    • 2
  • George Henrique Rebêlo
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências FlorestaisFaculdade de Ciências Agrárias do ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaManausBrazil

Personalised recommendations